sqlalchemy.exc IntegrityError Example Code

IntegrityError is a class within the sqlalchemy.exc module of the SQLAlchemy project.

ArgumentError, DataError, DatabaseError, InvalidRequestError, NoInspectionAvailable, NoSuchTableError, OperationalError, ProgrammingError, and UnsupportedCompilationError are several other callables with code examples from the same sqlalchemy.exc package.

Example 1 from CTFd

CTFd (homepage) is a capture the flag (CTF) hacking web app built with SQLAlchemy and Flask. The application can be used as-is to run CTF events, or the code can be modified for custom rules on hacking scenarios. CTFd is open sourced under the Apache License 2.0.

CTFd / CTFd / views.py

# views.py
import os

from flask import Blueprint, abort
from flask import current_app as app
from flask import redirect, render_template, request, send_file, session, url_for
from flask.helpers import safe_join
from sqlalchemy.exc import IntegrityError

from CTFd.cache import cache
from CTFd.constants.config import (
    AccountVisibilityTypes,
    ChallengeVisibilityTypes,
    ConfigTypes,
    RegistrationVisibilityTypes,
    ScoreVisibilityTypes,
)
from CTFd.models import (
    Admins,
    Files,
    Notifications,
    Pages,
    Teams,
    Users,
    UserTokens,
    db,
)
from CTFd.utils import config, get_config, set_config
from CTFd.utils import user as current_user
from CTFd.utils import validators
from CTFd.utils.config import is_setup
from CTFd.utils.config.pages import get_page


## ... source file abbreviated to get to IntegrityError examples ...


            set_config(
                "user_creation_email_subject", DEFAULT_USER_CREATION_EMAIL_SUBJECT
            )
            set_config("user_creation_email_body", DEFAULT_USER_CREATION_EMAIL_BODY)

            set_config("password_reset_subject", DEFAULT_PASSWORD_RESET_SUBJECT)
            set_config("password_reset_body", DEFAULT_PASSWORD_RESET_BODY)

            set_config(
                "password_change_alert_subject",
                "Password Change Confirmation for {ctf_name}",
            )
            set_config(
                "password_change_alert_body",
                (
                    "Your password for {ctf_name} has been changed.\n\n"
                    "If you didn't request a password change you can reset your password here: {url}"
                ),
            )

            set_config("setup", True)

            try:
                db.session.add(admin)
                db.session.commit()
            except IntegrityError:
                db.session.rollback()

            try:
                db.session.add(page)
                db.session.commit()
            except IntegrityError:
                db.session.rollback()

            login_user(admin)

            db.session.close()
            with app.app_context():
                cache.clear()

            return redirect(url_for("views.static_html"))
        return render_template("setup.html", state=serialize(generate_nonce()))
    return redirect(url_for("views.static_html"))


@views.route("/setup/integrations", methods=["GET", "POST"])
def integrations():
    if is_admin() or is_setup() is False:
        name = request.values.get("name")
        state = request.values.get("state")

        try:
            state = unserialize(state, max_age=3600)
        except (BadSignature, BadTimeSignature):
            state = False
        except Exception:


## ... source file continues with no further IntegrityError examples...

Example 2 from flask-base

flask-base (project documentation) provides boilerplate code for new Flask web apps. The purpose of the boilerplate is to stitch together disparate libraries that are commonly used in Flask projects, such as Redis for fast caching and transient data storage, SendGrid for transactional email, SQLAlchemy for persistent data storage through a relational database backend, Flask-WTF for form handling and many others.

flask-base is provided as open source under the MIT license.

flask-base / app / models / user.py

# user.py
from flask import current_app
from flask_login import AnonymousUserMixin, UserMixin
from itsdangerous import TimedJSONWebSignatureSerializer as Serializer
from itsdangerous import BadSignature, SignatureExpired
from werkzeug.security import check_password_hash, generate_password_hash

from .. import db, login_manager


class Permission:
    GENERAL = 0x01
    ADMINISTER = 0xff


class Role(db.Model):
    __tablename__ = 'roles'
    id = db.Column(db.Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = db.Column(db.String(64), unique=True)
    index = db.Column(db.String(64))
    default = db.Column(db.Boolean, default=False, index=True)
    permissions = db.Column(db.Integer)
    users = db.relationship('User', backref='role', lazy='dynamic')

    @staticmethod
    def insert_roles():
        roles = {
            'User': (Permission.GENERAL, 'main', True),
            'Administrator': (
                Permission.ADMINISTER,
                'admin',
                False  # grants all permissions
            )
        }
        for r in roles:
            role = Role.query.filter_by(name=r).first()


## ... source file abbreviated to get to IntegrityError examples ...


        new_email = data.get('new_email')
        if new_email is None:
            return False
        if self.query.filter_by(email=new_email).first() is not None:
            return False
        self.email = new_email
        db.session.add(self)
        db.session.commit()
        return True

    def reset_password(self, token, new_password):
        s = Serializer(current_app.config['SECRET_KEY'])
        try:
            data = s.loads(token)
        except (BadSignature, SignatureExpired):
            return False
        if data.get('reset') != self.id:
            return False
        self.password = new_password
        db.session.add(self)
        db.session.commit()
        return True

    @staticmethod
    def generate_fake(count=100, **kwargs):
        from sqlalchemy.exc import IntegrityError
        from random import seed, choice
        from faker import Faker

        fake = Faker()
        roles = Role.query.all()

        seed()
        for i in range(count):
            u = User(
                first_name=fake.first_name(),
                last_name=fake.last_name(),
                email=fake.email(),
                password='password',
                confirmed=True,
                role=choice(roles),
                **kwargs)
            db.session.add(u)
            try:
                db.session.commit()
            except IntegrityError:
                db.session.rollback()

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<User \'%s\'>' % self.full_name()


class AnonymousUser(AnonymousUserMixin):
    def can(self, _):
        return False

    def is_admin(self):
        return False


login_manager.anonymous_user = AnonymousUser


@login_manager.user_loader
def load_user(user_id):
    return User.query.get(int(user_id))



## ... source file continues with no further IntegrityError examples...

Example 3 from sqlalchemy-utils

sqlalchemy-utils (project documentation and PyPI package information) is a code library with various helper functions and new data types that make it easier to use SQLAlchemy when building projects that involve more specific storage requirements such as currency. The wide array of data types includes ranged values and aggregated attributes.

sqlalchemy-utils / sqlalchemy_utils / asserts.py

# asserts.py
from decimal import Decimal

import sqlalchemy as sa
from sqlalchemy.dialects.postgresql import ARRAY
from sqlalchemy.exc import DataError, IntegrityError


def _update_field(obj, field, value):
    session = sa.orm.object_session(obj)
    column = sa.inspect(obj.__class__).columns[field]
    query = column.table.update().values(**{column.key: value})
    session.execute(query)
    session.flush()


def _expect_successful_update(obj, field, value, reraise_exc):
    try:
        _update_field(obj, field, value)
    except (reraise_exc) as e:
        session = sa.orm.object_session(obj)
        session.rollback()
        assert False, str(e)


def _expect_failing_update(obj, field, value, expected_exc):
    try:
        _update_field(obj, field, value)
    except expected_exc:
        pass


## ... source file continues with no further IntegrityError examples...

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