django.shortcuts get_object_or_404 Example Code

get_object_or_404 is a callable within the django.shortcuts module of the Django project.

Example 1 from dccnsys

dccnsys is a conference registration system built with Django. The code is open source under the MIT license.

dccnsys / wwwdccn / proceedings / views.py

# views.py
from django.http import JsonResponse
from django.shortcuts import render, get_object_or_404
from django.views.decorators.http import require_POST

from conferences.utilities import validate_chair_access
from proceedings.forms import UpdateVolumeForm
from proceedings.models import CameraReady


@require_POST
def update_volume(request, camera_id):
    camera = get_object_or_404(CameraReady, id=camera_id)
    validate_chair_access(request.user, camera.submission.conference)
    form = UpdateVolumeForm(request.POST, instance=camera)
    if form.is_valid():
        form.save()
        return JsonResponse(status=200, data={})
    return JsonResponse(status=500, data={})



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Example 2 from django-cms

django-cms (project website) is a Python-based content management system (CMS) library for use with Django web apps that is open sourced under the BSD 3-Clause "New" license.

django-cms / cms / admin / placeholderadmin.py

# placeholderadmin.py
import uuid
import warnings

from django.conf.urls import url
from django.contrib.admin.helpers import AdminForm
from django.contrib.admin.utils import get_deleted_objects
from django.core.exceptions import PermissionDenied
from django.db import router, transaction
from django.http import (
    HttpResponse,
    HttpResponseBadRequest,
    HttpResponseForbidden,
    HttpResponseNotFound,
    HttpResponseRedirect,
)
from django.shortcuts import get_list_or_404, get_object_or_404, render
from django.template.response import TemplateResponse
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator
from django.utils.encoding import force_text
from django.utils import translation
from django.utils.translation import ugettext as _
from django.views.decorators.clickjacking import xframe_options_sameorigin
from django.views.decorators.http import require_POST

from six.moves.urllib.parse import parse_qsl, urlparse

from six import get_unbound_function, get_method_function

from cms import operations
from cms.admin.forms import PluginAddValidationForm
from cms.constants import SLUG_REGEXP
from cms.exceptions import PluginLimitReached
from cms.models.placeholdermodel import Placeholder
from cms.models.placeholderpluginmodel import PlaceholderReference
from cms.models.pluginmodel import CMSPlugin
from cms.plugin_pool import plugin_pool
from cms.signals import pre_placeholder_operation, post_placeholder_operation
from cms.toolbar.utils import get_plugin_tree_as_json
from cms.utils import copy_plugins, get_current_site
from cms.utils.compat import DJANGO_2_0


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


            token=token,
            origin=self._get_operation_origin(request),
            **kwargs
        )
        return token

    def _send_post_placeholder_operation(self, request, operation, token, **kwargs):
        if not request.GET.get('cms_path'):
            return

        post_placeholder_operation.send(
            sender=self.__class__,
            operation=operation,
            request=request,
            language=self._get_operation_language(request),
            token=token,
            origin=self._get_operation_origin(request),
            **kwargs
        )

    def _get_plugin_from_id(self, plugin_id):
        queryset = CMSPlugin.objects.values_list('plugin_type', flat=True)
        plugin_type = get_list_or_404(queryset, pk=plugin_id)[0]
        plugin_class = plugin_pool.get_plugin(plugin_type)
        real_queryset = plugin_class.get_render_queryset().select_related('parent', 'placeholder')
        return get_object_or_404(real_queryset, pk=plugin_id)

    def get_urls(self):
        info = "%s_%s" % (self.model._meta.app_label, self.model._meta.model_name)
        pat = lambda regex, fn: url(regex, self.admin_site.admin_view(fn), name='%s_%s' % (info, fn.__name__))
        url_patterns = [
            pat(r'copy-plugins/$', self.copy_plugins),
            pat(r'add-plugin/$', self.add_plugin),
            pat(r'edit-plugin/(%s)/$' % SLUG_REGEXP, self.edit_plugin),
            pat(r'delete-plugin/(%s)/$' % SLUG_REGEXP, self.delete_plugin),
            pat(r'clear-placeholder/(%s)/$' % SLUG_REGEXP, self.clear_placeholder),
            pat(r'move-plugin/$', self.move_plugin),
        ]
        return url_patterns + super(PlaceholderAdminMixin, self).get_urls()

    def has_add_plugin_permission(self, request, placeholder, plugin_type):
        return placeholder.has_add_plugin_permission(request.user, plugin_type)

    def has_change_plugin_permission(self, request, plugin):
        placeholder = plugin.placeholder
        return placeholder.has_change_plugin_permission(request.user, plugin)

    def has_delete_plugin_permission(self, request, plugin):
        placeholder = plugin.placeholder
        return placeholder.has_delete_plugin_permission(request.user, plugin)


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...



        plugin = getattr(plugin_instance, 'saved_object', None)

        if plugin:
            plugin.placeholder.mark_as_dirty(plugin.language, clear_cache=False)

        if plugin_instance._operation_token:
            tree_order = placeholder.get_plugin_tree_order(plugin.parent_id)
            self._send_post_placeholder_operation(
                request,
                operation=operations.ADD_PLUGIN,
                token=plugin_instance._operation_token,
                plugin=plugin,
                placeholder=plugin.placeholder,
                tree_order=tree_order,
            )
        return response

    @method_decorator(require_POST)
    @xframe_options_sameorigin
    @transaction.atomic
    def copy_plugins(self, request):
        source_placeholder_id = request.POST['source_placeholder_id']
        target_language = request.POST['target_language']
        target_placeholder_id = request.POST['target_placeholder_id']
        source_placeholder = get_object_or_404(Placeholder, pk=source_placeholder_id)
        target_placeholder = get_object_or_404(Placeholder, pk=target_placeholder_id)

        if not target_language or not target_language in get_language_list():
            return HttpResponseBadRequest(force_text(_("Language must be set to a supported language!")))

        copy_to_clipboard = target_placeholder.pk == request.toolbar.clipboard.pk
        source_plugin_id = request.POST.get('source_plugin_id', None)

        if copy_to_clipboard and source_plugin_id:
            new_plugin = self._copy_plugin_to_clipboard(
                request,
                source_placeholder,
                target_placeholder,
            )
            new_plugins = [new_plugin]
        elif copy_to_clipboard:
            new_plugin = self._copy_placeholder_to_clipboard(
                request,
                source_placeholder,
                target_placeholder,
            )
            new_plugins = [new_plugin]
        else:
            new_plugins = self._add_plugins_from_placeholder(
                request,
                source_placeholder,
                target_placeholder,
            )
        data = get_plugin_tree_as_json(request, new_plugins)
        return HttpResponse(data, content_type='application/json')

    def _copy_plugin_to_clipboard(self, request, source_placeholder, target_placeholder):
        source_language = request.POST['source_language']
        source_plugin_id = request.POST.get('source_plugin_id')
        target_language = request.POST['target_language']

        source_plugin = get_object_or_404(
            CMSPlugin,
            pk=source_plugin_id,
            language=source_language,
        )

        old_plugins = (
            CMSPlugin
            .get_tree(parent=source_plugin)
            .filter(placeholder=source_placeholder)
            .order_by('path')
        )

        if not self.has_copy_plugins_permission(request, old_plugins):
            message = _('You do not have permission to copy these plugins.')
            raise PermissionDenied(force_text(message))

        target_placeholder.clear()

        plugin_pairs = copy_plugins.copy_plugins_to(
            old_plugins,
            to_placeholder=target_placeholder,
            to_language=target_language,
        )
        return plugin_pairs[0][0]


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...



        if placeholder != source_placeholder:
            try:
                template = self.get_placeholder_template(request, placeholder)
                has_reached_plugin_limit(placeholder, plugin.plugin_type,
                                         target_language, template=template)
            except PluginLimitReached as er:
                return HttpResponseBadRequest(er)

        exclude_from_order_check = ['__COPY__', str(plugin.pk)]
        ordered_plugin_ids = [int(pk) for pk in order if pk not in exclude_from_order_check]
        plugins_in_tree_count = (
            placeholder
            .get_plugins(target_language)
            .filter(parent=parent_id, pk__in=ordered_plugin_ids)
            .count()
        )

        if len(ordered_plugin_ids) != plugins_in_tree_count:
            message = _('order parameter references plugins in different trees')
            return HttpResponseBadRequest(force_text(message))

        move_a_plugin = not move_a_copy and not move_to_clipboard

        if parent_id and plugin.parent_id != parent_id:
            target_parent = get_object_or_404(CMSPlugin, pk=parent_id)

            if move_a_plugin and target_parent.placeholder_id != placeholder.pk:
                return HttpResponseBadRequest(force_text(
                    _('parent must be in the same placeholder')))

            if move_a_plugin and target_parent.language != target_language:
                return HttpResponseBadRequest(force_text(
                    _('parent must be in the same language as '
                      'plugin_language')))
        elif parent_id:
            target_parent = plugin.parent
        else:
            target_parent = None

        new_plugin = None
        fetch_tree = False

        if move_a_copy and plugin.plugin_type == "PlaceholderPlugin":
            new_plugins = self._paste_placeholder(
                request,
                plugin=plugin,
                target_language=target_language,
                target_placeholder=placeholder,
                tree_order=order,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


            return HttpResponseRedirect(admin_reverse('index', current_app=self.admin_site.name))

        plugin_name = force_text(plugin.get_plugin_class().name)

        if perms_needed or protected:
            title = _("Cannot delete %(name)s") % {"name": plugin_name}
        else:
            title = _("Are you sure?")
        context = {
            "title": title,
            "object_name": plugin_name,
            "object": plugin,
            "deleted_objects": deleted_objects,
            "perms_lacking": perms_needed,
            "protected": protected,
            "opts": opts,
            "app_label": opts.app_label,
        }
        request.current_app = self.admin_site.name
        return TemplateResponse(
            request, "admin/cms/page/plugin/delete_confirmation.html", context
        )

    @xframe_options_sameorigin
    def clear_placeholder(self, request, placeholder_id):
        placeholder = get_object_or_404(Placeholder, pk=placeholder_id)
        language = request.GET.get('language')

        if placeholder.pk == request.toolbar.clipboard.pk:
            placeholder.clear(language)
            return HttpResponseRedirect(admin_reverse('index', current_app=self.admin_site.name))

        if not self.has_clear_placeholder_permission(request, placeholder, language):
            return HttpResponseForbidden(force_text(_("You do not have permission to clear this placeholder")))

        opts = Placeholder._meta
        using = router.db_for_write(Placeholder)
        plugins = placeholder.get_plugins_list(language)

        if DJANGO_2_0:
            get_deleted_objects_additional_kwargs = {
                'opts': opts,
                'using': using,
                'user': request.user,
            }
        else:
            get_deleted_objects_additional_kwargs = {'request': request}
        deleted_objects, __, perms_needed, protected = get_deleted_objects(
            plugins, admin_site=self.admin_site,
            **get_deleted_objects_additional_kwargs


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Example 3 from django-filer

django-filer (project documentation) is a file management library for uploading and organizing files and images in Django's admin interface. The project's code is available under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" open source license.

django-filer / filer / views.py

# views.py
from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals

from django.http import Http404
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, redirect

from .models import File


def canonical(request, uploaded_at, file_id):
    filer_file = get_object_or_404(File, pk=file_id, is_public=True)
    if (not filer_file.file or int(uploaded_at) != filer_file.canonical_time):
        raise Http404('No %s matches the given query.' % File._meta.object_name)
    return redirect(filer_file.url)



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Example 4 from django-flexible-subscriptions

django-flexible-subscriptions (project documentation and PyPI package information) provides boilerplate code for adding subscription and recurrent billing to Django web applications. Various payment providers can be added on the back end to run the transactions.

The django-flexible-subscriptions project is open sourced under the GNU General Public License v3.0.

django-flexible-subscriptions / subscriptions / views.py

# views.py
from copy import copy

from django.contrib import messages
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.contrib.auth.mixins import (
    LoginRequiredMixin, PermissionRequiredMixin
)
from django.contrib.messages.views import SuccessMessageMixin
from django.forms import HiddenInput
from django.forms.models import inlineformset_factory
from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect
from django.http.response import HttpResponseNotAllowed, HttpResponseNotFound
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404
from django.template.response import TemplateResponse
from django.urls import reverse_lazy
from django.utils import timezone

from subscriptions import models, forms, abstract


class DashboardView(PermissionRequiredMixin, abstract.TemplateView):
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    template_name = 'subscriptions/dashboard.html'


class TagListView(PermissionRequiredMixin, abstract.ListView):
    model = models.PlanTag
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    context_object_name = 'tags'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/tag_list.html'


class TagCreateView(
        PermissionRequiredMixin, SuccessMessageMixin, abstract.CreateView
):


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...



class PlanListDetailListView(PermissionRequiredMixin, abstract.DetailView):
    model = models.PlanList
    pk_url_kwarg = 'plan_list_id'
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    context_object_name = 'plan_list'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/plan_list_detail_list.html'


class PlanListDetailCreateView(
        PermissionRequiredMixin, SuccessMessageMixin, abstract.CreateView
):
    model = models.PlanListDetail
    fields = [
        'plan', 'plan_list', 'html_content', 'subscribe_button_text', 'order'
    ]
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    success_message = 'Subscription plan successfully added to plan list'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/plan_list_detail_create.html'

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super().get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context['plan_list'] = get_object_or_404(
            models.PlanList, id=self.kwargs.get('plan_list_id', None)
        )

        return context

    def get_success_url(self):
        return reverse_lazy(
            'dfs_plan_list_detail_list',
            kwargs={'plan_list_id': self.kwargs['plan_list_id']},
        )


class PlanListDetailUpdateView(
        PermissionRequiredMixin, SuccessMessageMixin, abstract.UpdateView
):
    model = models.PlanListDetail
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    fields = [
        'plan', 'plan_list', 'html_content', 'subscribe_button_text', 'order'
    ]
    success_message = 'Plan list details successfully updated'
    pk_url_kwarg = 'plan_list_detail_id'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/plan_list_detail_update.html'

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super().get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context['plan_list'] = get_object_or_404(
            models.PlanList, id=self.kwargs.get('plan_list_id', None)
        )

        return context

    def get_success_url(self):
        return reverse_lazy(
            'dfs_plan_list_detail_list',
            kwargs={'plan_list_id': self.kwargs['plan_list_id']},
        )


class PlanListDetailDeleteView(PermissionRequiredMixin, abstract.DeleteView):
    model = models.PlanListDetail
    permission_required = 'subscriptions.subscriptions'
    raise_exception = True
    context_object_name = 'plan_list_detail'
    pk_url_kwarg = 'plan_list_detail_id'
    success_message = 'Subscription plan successfully removed from plan list'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/plan_list_detail_delete.html'

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super().get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context['plan_list'] = get_object_or_404(
            models.PlanList, id=self.kwargs.get('plan_list_id', None)
        )

        return context

    def delete(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        messages.success(self.request, self.success_message)
        return super(PlanListDetailDeleteView, self).delete(
            request, *args, **kwargs
        )

    def get_success_url(self):
        return reverse_lazy(
            'dfs_plan_list_detail_list',
            kwargs={'plan_list_id': self.kwargs['plan_list_id']},
        )


class SubscribeList(abstract.TemplateView):
    context_object_name = 'plan_list'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/subscribe_list.html'

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        plan_list = models.PlanList.objects.filter(active=True).first()


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


                self.get_context_data(plan_list=plan_list, details=details)
            )

            return response

        return HttpResponseNotFound('No subscription plans are available')

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super().get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context['plan_list'] = kwargs['plan_list']
        context['details'] = kwargs['details']

        return context


class SubscribeView(LoginRequiredMixin, abstract.TemplateView):
    confirmation = False
    payment_form = forms.PaymentForm
    subscription_plan = None
    success_url = 'dfs_subscribe_thank_you'
    template_preview = 'subscriptions/subscribe_preview.html'
    template_confirmation = 'subscriptions/subscribe_confirmation.html'

    def get_object(self):
        return get_object_or_404(
            models.SubscriptionPlan, id=self.request.POST.get('plan_id', None)
        )

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super(SubscribeView, self).get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context['confirmation'] = self.confirmation

        context['plan'] = self.subscription_plan

        return context

    def get_template_names(self):
        conf_templates = [self.template_confirmation]
        prev_templates = [self.template_preview]

        return conf_templates if self.confirmation else prev_templates

    def get_success_url(self, **kwargs):
        return reverse_lazy(self.success_url, kwargs=kwargs)

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponseNotAllowed(['POST'])



## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


        try:
            return models.SubscriptionTransaction.objects.get(
                id=self.kwargs['transaction_id'],
                user=self.request.user,
            )
        except models.SubscriptionTransaction.DoesNotExist:
            return None

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super(SubscribeThankYouView, self).get_context_data(**kwargs)

        context[self.context_object_name] = self.get_object()

        return context


class SubscribeCancelView(LoginRequiredMixin, abstract.DetailView):
    model = models.UserSubscription
    context_object_name = 'subscription'
    pk_url_kwarg = 'subscription_id'
    success_message = 'Subscription successfully cancelled'
    success_url = 'dfs_subscribe_user_list'
    template_name = 'subscriptions/subscribe_cancel.html'

    def get_object(self, queryset=None):
        return get_object_or_404(
            self.model,
            user=self.request.user,
            id=self.kwargs['subscription_id'],
        )

    def get_success_url(self):
        return reverse_lazy(self.success_url)

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):  # pylint: disable=unused-argument
        subscription = self.get_object()
        subscription.date_billing_end = copy(subscription.date_billing_next)
        subscription.date_billing_next = None
        subscription.cancelled = True
        subscription.save()

        messages.success(self.request, self.success_message)

        return HttpResponseRedirect(self.get_success_url())



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Example 5 from django-guardian

django-guardian (project documentation and PyPI page) provides per-object permissions in Django projects by enhancing the existing authentication backend. The project's code is open source under the MIT license.

django-guardian / guardian / admin.py

# admin.py
from collections import OrderedDict

from django import forms
from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib import admin, messages
from django.contrib.admin.widgets import FilteredSelectMultiple
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, redirect, render
from django.urls import reverse, path
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
from django.utils.translation import gettext
from guardian.forms import GroupObjectPermissionsForm, UserObjectPermissionsForm
from django.contrib.auth.models import Group
from guardian.shortcuts import (get_group_perms, get_groups_with_perms, get_perms_for_model, get_user_perms,
                                get_users_with_perms)


class AdminUserObjectPermissionsForm(UserObjectPermissionsForm):

    def get_obj_perms_field_widget(self):
        return FilteredSelectMultiple(_("Permissions"), False)


class AdminGroupObjectPermissionsForm(GroupObjectPermissionsForm):

    def get_obj_perms_field_widget(self):
        return FilteredSelectMultiple(_("Permissions"), False)


class GuardedModelAdminMixin:
    change_form_template = \
        'admin/guardian/model/change_form.html'


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


            ]
            urls = myurls + urls
        return urls

    def get_obj_perms_base_context(self, request, obj):
        context = self.admin_site.each_context(request)
        context.update({
            'adminform': {'model_admin': self},
            'media': self.media,
            'object': obj,
            'app_label': self.model._meta.app_label,
            'opts': self.model._meta,
            'original': str(obj),
            'has_change_permission': self.has_change_permission(request, obj),
            'model_perms': get_perms_for_model(obj),
            'title': _("Object permissions"),
        })
        return context

    def obj_perms_manage_view(self, request, object_pk):
        if not self.has_change_permission(request, None):
            post_url = reverse('admin:index', current_app=self.admin_site.name)
            return redirect(post_url)

        from django.contrib.admin.utils import unquote
        obj = get_object_or_404(self.get_queryset(
            request), pk=unquote(object_pk))
        users_perms = OrderedDict(
            sorted(
                get_users_with_perms(obj, attach_perms=True,
                                     with_group_users=False).items(),
                key=lambda user: getattr(
                    user[0], get_user_model().USERNAME_FIELD)
            )
        )

        groups_perms = OrderedDict(
            sorted(
                get_groups_with_perms(obj, attach_perms=True).items(),
                key=lambda group: group[0].name
            )
        )

        if request.method == 'POST' and 'submit_manage_user' in request.POST:
            user_form = self.get_obj_perms_user_select_form(
                request)(request.POST)
            group_form = self.get_obj_perms_group_select_form(
                request)(request.POST)
            info = (
                self.admin_site.name,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


                return redirect(url)
        else:
            user_form = self.get_obj_perms_user_select_form(request)()
            group_form = self.get_obj_perms_group_select_form(request)()

        context = self.get_obj_perms_base_context(request, obj)
        context['users_perms'] = users_perms
        context['groups_perms'] = groups_perms
        context['user_form'] = user_form
        context['group_form'] = group_form

        request.current_app = self.admin_site.name

        return render(request, self.get_obj_perms_manage_template(), context)

    def get_obj_perms_manage_template(self):
        if 'grappelli' in settings.INSTALLED_APPS:
            return 'admin/guardian/contrib/grappelli/obj_perms_manage.html'
        return self.obj_perms_manage_template

    def obj_perms_manage_user_view(self, request, object_pk, user_id):
        if not self.has_change_permission(request, None):
            post_url = reverse('admin:index', current_app=self.admin_site.name)
            return redirect(post_url)

        user = get_object_or_404(get_user_model(), pk=user_id)
        obj = get_object_or_404(self.get_queryset(request), pk=object_pk)
        form_class = self.get_obj_perms_manage_user_form(request)
        form = form_class(user, obj, request.POST or None)

        if request.method == 'POST' and form.is_valid():
            form.save_obj_perms()
            msg = gettext("Permissions saved.")
            messages.success(request, msg)
            info = (
                self.admin_site.name,
                self.model._meta.app_label,
                self.model._meta.model_name,
            )
            url = reverse(
                '%s:%s_%s_permissions_manage_user' % info,
                args=[obj.pk, user.pk]
            )
            return redirect(url)

        context = self.get_obj_perms_base_context(request, obj)
        context['user_obj'] = user
        context['user_perms'] = get_user_perms(user, obj)
        context['form'] = form

        request.current_app = self.admin_site.name

        return render(request, self.get_obj_perms_manage_user_template(), context)

    def get_obj_perms_manage_user_template(self):
        if 'grappelli' in settings.INSTALLED_APPS:
            return 'admin/guardian/contrib/grappelli/obj_perms_manage_user.html'
        return self.obj_perms_manage_user_template

    def get_obj_perms_user_select_form(self, request):
        return UserManage

    def get_obj_perms_group_select_form(self, request):
        return GroupManage

    def get_obj_perms_manage_user_form(self, request):
        return AdminUserObjectPermissionsForm

    def obj_perms_manage_group_view(self, request, object_pk, group_id):
        if not self.has_change_permission(request, None):
            post_url = reverse('admin:index', current_app=self.admin_site.name)
            return redirect(post_url)

        group = get_object_or_404(Group, id=group_id)
        obj = get_object_or_404(self.get_queryset(request), pk=object_pk)
        form_class = self.get_obj_perms_manage_group_form(request)
        form = form_class(group, obj, request.POST or None)

        if request.method == 'POST' and form.is_valid():
            form.save_obj_perms()
            msg = gettext("Permissions saved.")
            messages.success(request, msg)
            info = (
                self.admin_site.name,
                self.model._meta.app_label,
                self.model._meta.model_name,
            )
            url = reverse(
                '%s:%s_%s_permissions_manage_group' % info,
                args=[obj.pk, group.id]
            )
            return redirect(url)

        context = self.get_obj_perms_base_context(request, obj)
        context['group_obj'] = group
        context['group_perms'] = get_group_perms(group, obj)
        context['form'] = form

        request.current_app = self.admin_site.name


## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 6 from django-rest-framework

Django REST Framework (project homepage and documentation, PyPI package information and more resources on Full Stack Python), often abbreviated as "DRF", is a popular Django extension for building web APIs. The project has fantastic documentation and a wonderful quickstart that serve as examples of how to make it easier for newcomers to get started.

The project is open sourced under the Encode OSS Ltd. license.

django-rest-framework / rest_framework / generics.py

# generics.py
from django.core.exceptions import ValidationError
from django.db.models.query import QuerySet
from django.http import Http404
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404 as _get_object_or_404

from rest_framework import mixins, views
from rest_framework.settings import api_settings


def get_object_or_404(queryset, *filter_args, **filter_kwargs):
    try:
        return _get_object_or_404(queryset, *filter_args, **filter_kwargs)
    except (TypeError, ValueError, ValidationError):
        raise Http404


class GenericAPIView(views.APIView):
    queryset = None
    serializer_class = None

    lookup_field = 'pk'
    lookup_url_kwarg = None

    filter_backends = api_settings.DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS

    pagination_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_PAGINATION_CLASS

    def get_queryset(self):
        assert self.queryset is not None, (
            "'%s' should either include a `queryset` attribute, "
            "or override the `get_queryset()` method."
            % self.__class__.__name__
        )

        queryset = self.queryset
        if isinstance(queryset, QuerySet):
            queryset = queryset.all()
        return queryset

    def get_object(self):
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())

        lookup_url_kwarg = self.lookup_url_kwarg or self.lookup_field

        assert lookup_url_kwarg in self.kwargs, (
            'Expected view %s to be called with a URL keyword argument '
            'named "%s". Fix your URL conf, or set the `.lookup_field` '
            'attribute on the view correctly.' %
            (self.__class__.__name__, lookup_url_kwarg)
        )

        filter_kwargs = {self.lookup_field: self.kwargs[lookup_url_kwarg]}
        obj = get_object_or_404(queryset, **filter_kwargs)

        self.check_object_permissions(self.request, obj)

        return obj

    def get_serializer(self, *args, **kwargs):
        serializer_class = self.get_serializer_class()
        kwargs.setdefault('context', self.get_serializer_context())
        return serializer_class(*args, **kwargs)

    def get_serializer_class(self):
        assert self.serializer_class is not None, (
            "'%s' should either include a `serializer_class` attribute, "
            "or override the `get_serializer_class()` method."
            % self.__class__.__name__
        )

        return self.serializer_class

    def get_serializer_context(self):
        return {
            'request': self.request,
            'format': self.format_kwarg,
            'view': self


## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 7 from django-sql-explorer

django-sql-explorer (PyPI page), also referred to as "SQL Explorer", is a code library for the Django Admin that allows approved, authenticated users to view and execute direct database SQL queries. The tool keeps track of executed queries so users can share them with each other, as well as export results to downloadable formats. django-sql-explorer is provided as open source under the MIT license.

django-sql-explorer / explorer / views.py

# views.py
import re
import six
from collections import Counter

try:
    from django.urls import reverse_lazy
except ImportError:
    from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse_lazy

import django
from django.db import DatabaseError
from django.db.models import Count
from django.forms.models import model_to_dict
from django.http import HttpResponse, JsonResponse, HttpResponseRedirect, Http404
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, render
from django.views.decorators.http import require_POST
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator
from django.views.generic import ListView
from django.views.generic.base import View
from django.views.generic.edit import CreateView, DeleteView
from django.views.decorators.clickjacking import xframe_options_sameorigin
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.contrib.auth import REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME
from django.contrib.auth.views import LoginView

from explorer import app_settings
from explorer.connections import connections
from explorer.exporters import get_exporter_class
from explorer.forms import QueryForm
from explorer.models import Query, QueryLog, MSG_FAILED_BLACKLIST
from explorer.tasks import execute_query
from explorer.utils import (
    url_get_rows,
    url_get_query_id,
    url_get_log_id,
    url_get_params,
    safe_login_prompt,
    fmt_sql,
    allowed_query_pks,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...



def _export(request, query, download=True):
    format = request.GET.get('format', 'csv')
    exporter_class = get_exporter_class(format)
    query.params = url_get_params(request)
    delim = request.GET.get('delim')
    exporter = exporter_class(query)
    try:
        output = exporter.get_output(delim=delim)
    except DatabaseError as e:
        msg = "Error executing query %s: %s" % (query.title, e)
        return HttpResponse(msg, status=500)
    response = HttpResponse(output, content_type=exporter.content_type)
    if download:
        response['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % (
            exporter.get_filename()
        )
    return response


class DownloadQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, View):

    permission_required = 'view_permission'

    def get(self, request, query_id, *args, **kwargs):
        query = get_object_or_404(Query, pk=query_id)
        return _export(request, query)


class DownloadFromSqlView(PermissionRequiredMixin, View):

    permission_required = 'view_permission'

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        sql = request.POST.get('sql')
        connection = request.POST.get('connection')
        query = Query(sql=sql, connection=connection, title='')
        ql = query.log(request.user)
        query.title = 'Playground - %s' % ql.id
        return _export(request, query)


class StreamQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, View):

    permission_required = 'view_permission'

    def get(self, request, query_id, *args, **kwargs):
        query = get_object_or_404(Query, pk=query_id)
        return _export(request, query, download=False)


class EmailCsvQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, View):

    permission_required = 'view_permission'

    def post(self, request, query_id, *args, **kwargs):
        if request.is_ajax():
            email = request.POST.get('email', None)
            if email:
                execute_query.delay(query_id, email)
                return JsonResponse({'message': 'message was sent successfully'})
        return JsonResponse({}, status=403)


class SchemaView(PermissionRequiredMixin, View):
    permission_required = 'change_permission'

    @method_decorator(xframe_options_sameorigin)
    def dispatch(self, *args, **kwargs):
        return super(SchemaView, self).dispatch(*args, **kwargs)

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


class CreateQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, ExplorerContextMixin, CreateView):

    permission_required = 'change_permission'

    def form_valid(self, form):
        form.instance.created_by_user = self.request.user
        return super(CreateQueryView, self).form_valid(form)

    form_class = QueryForm
    template_name = 'explorer/query.html'


class DeleteQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, ExplorerContextMixin, DeleteView):

    permission_required = 'change_permission'
    model = Query
    success_url = reverse_lazy("explorer_index")


class PlayQueryView(PermissionRequiredMixin, ExplorerContextMixin, View):

    permission_required = 'change_permission'

    def get(self, request):
        if url_get_query_id(request):
            query = get_object_or_404(Query, pk=url_get_query_id(request))
            return self.render_with_sql(request, query, run_query=False)

        if url_get_log_id(request):
            log = get_object_or_404(QueryLog, pk=url_get_log_id(request))
            query = Query(sql=log.sql, title="Playground", connection=log.connection)
            return self.render_with_sql(request, query)

        return self.render()

    def post(self, request):
        sql = request.POST.get('sql')
        show = url_get_show(request)
        query = Query(sql=sql, title="Playground", connection=request.POST.get('connection'))
        passes_blacklist, failing_words = query.passes_blacklist()
        error = MSG_FAILED_BLACKLIST % ', '.join(failing_words) if not passes_blacklist else None
        run_query = not bool(error) if show else False
        return self.render_with_sql(request, query, run_query=run_query, error=error)

    def render(self):
        return self.render_template('explorer/play.html', {'title': 'Playground', 'form': QueryForm()})

    def render_with_sql(self, request, query, run_query=True, error=None):
        rows = url_get_rows(request)
        fullscreen = url_get_fullscreen(request)
        template = 'fullscreen' if fullscreen else 'play'
        form = QueryForm(request.POST if len(request.POST) else None, instance=query)
        return self.render_template('explorer/%s.html' % template, query_viewmodel(request.user,
                                                                                   query,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


        show = url_get_show(request)
        rows = url_get_rows(request)
        vm = query_viewmodel(request.user, query, form=form, run_query=show, rows=rows)
        fullscreen = url_get_fullscreen(request)
        template = 'fullscreen' if fullscreen else 'query'
        return self.render_template('explorer/%s.html' % template, vm)

    def post(self, request, query_id):
        if not app_settings.EXPLORER_PERMISSION_CHANGE(request.user):
            return HttpResponseRedirect(
                reverse_lazy('query_detail', kwargs={'query_id': query_id})
            )
        show = url_get_show(request)
        query, form = QueryView.get_instance_and_form(request, query_id)
        success = form.is_valid() and form.save()
        vm = query_viewmodel(request.user,
                             query,
                             form=form,
                             run_query=show,
                             rows=url_get_rows(request),
                             message="Query saved." if success else None)
        return self.render_template('explorer/query.html', vm)

    @staticmethod
    def get_instance_and_form(request, query_id):
        query = get_object_or_404(Query, pk=query_id)
        query.params = url_get_params(request)
        form = QueryForm(request.POST if len(request.POST) else None, instance=query)
        return query, form


def query_viewmodel(user, query, title=None, form=None, message=None, run_query=True, error=None, rows=app_settings.EXPLORER_DEFAULT_ROWS):
    res = None
    ql = None
    if run_query:
        try:
            res, ql = query.execute_with_logging(user)
        except DatabaseError as e:
            error = str(e)
    has_valid_results = not error and res and run_query
    ret = {
        'tasks_enabled': app_settings.ENABLE_TASKS,
        'params': query.available_params(),
        'title': title,
        'shared': query.shared,
        'query': query,
        'form': form,
        'message': message,
        'error': error,
        'rows': rows,


## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 8 from django-taggit

django-taggit (PyPI page) provides a way to create, store, manage and use tags in a Django project. The code for django-taggit is open source and maintained by the collaborative developer community group Jazzband.

django-taggit / taggit / views.py

# views.py
from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404
from django.views.generic.list import ListView

from taggit.models import Tag, TaggedItem


def tagged_object_list(request, slug, queryset, **kwargs):
    if callable(queryset):
        queryset = queryset()
    kwargs["slug"] = slug
    tag_list_view = type(
        "TagListView",
        (TagListMixin, ListView),
        {"model": queryset.model, "queryset": queryset},
    )
    return tag_list_view.as_view()(request, **kwargs)


class TagListMixin:
    tag_suffix = "_tag"

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        slug = kwargs.pop("slug")
        self.tag = get_object_or_404(Tag, slug=slug)
        return super().dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)

    def get_queryset(self, **kwargs):
        qs = super().get_queryset(**kwargs)
        return qs.filter(
            pk__in=TaggedItem.objects.filter(
                tag=self.tag, content_type=ContentType.objects.get_for_model(qs.model)
            ).values_list("object_id", flat=True)
        )

    def get_template_names(self):
        if self.tag_suffix:
            self.template_name_suffix = self.tag_suffix + self.template_name_suffix
        return super().get_template_names()

    def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
        context = super().get_context_data(**kwargs)
        if "extra_context" not in context:
            context["extra_context"] = {}
        context["extra_context"]["tag"] = self.tag
        return context



## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 9 from django-wiki

django-wiki (project documentation, demo, and PyPI page) is a wiki system code library for Django projects that makes it easier to create user-editable content. The project aims to provide necessary core features and then have an easy plugin format for additional features, rather than having every exhaustive feature built into the core system. django-wiki is a rewrite of an earlier now-defunct project named django-simplewiki.

The code for django-wiki is provided as open source under the GNU General Public License 3.0.

django-wiki / src/wiki / forms.py

# forms.py
__all__ = [
    "UserCreationForm",
    "UserUpdateForm",
    "WikiSlugField",
    "SpamProtectionMixin",
    "CreateRootForm",
    "MoveForm",
    "EditForm",
    "SelectWidgetBootstrap",
    "TextInputPrepend",
    "CreateForm",
    "DeleteForm",
    "PermissionsForm",
    "DirFilterForm",
    "SearchForm",
]

from datetime import timedelta

from django import forms
from django.apps import apps
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.core import validators
from django.core.validators import RegexValidator
from django.forms.widgets import HiddenInput
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404
from django.urls import Resolver404, resolve
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe
from django.utils.translation import gettext, gettext_lazy as _, pgettext_lazy
from wiki import models
from wiki.conf import settings
from wiki.core import permissions
from wiki.core.diff import simple_merge
from wiki.core.plugins.base import PluginSettingsFormMixin
from wiki.editors import getEditor

from .forms_account_handling import UserCreationForm, UserUpdateForm

validate_slug_numbers = RegexValidator(
    r"^[0-9]+$",
    _("A 'slug' cannot consist solely of numbers."),
    "invalid",
    inverse_match=True,
)


class WikiSlugField(forms.CharField):

    default_validators = [validators.validate_slug, validate_slug_numbers]


## ... source file abbreviated to get to get_object_or_404 examples ...


        ),
    )
    content = forms.CharField(
        label=_("Type in some contents"),
        help_text=_(
            "This is just the initial contents of your article. After creating it, you can use more complex features like adding plugins, meta data, related articles etc..."
        ),
        required=False,
        widget=getEditor().get_widget(),
    )  # @UndefinedVariable


class MoveForm(forms.Form):

    destination = forms.CharField(label=_("Destination"))
    slug = WikiSlugField(max_length=models.URLPath.SLUG_MAX_LENGTH)
    redirect = forms.BooleanField(
        label=_("Redirect pages"),
        help_text=_("Create a redirect page for every moved article?"),
        required=False,
    )

    def clean(self):
        cd = super().clean()
        if cd.get("slug"):
            dest_path = get_object_or_404(
                models.URLPath, pk=self.cleaned_data["destination"]
            )
            cd["slug"] = _clean_slug(cd["slug"], dest_path)
        return cd


class EditForm(forms.Form, SpamProtectionMixin):

    title = forms.CharField(label=_("Title"),)
    content = forms.CharField(
        label=_("Contents"), required=False, widget=getEditor().get_widget()
    )  # @UndefinedVariable

    summary = forms.CharField(
        label=pgettext_lazy("Revision comment", "Summary"),
        help_text=_(
            "Give a short reason for your edit, which will be stated in the revision log."
        ),
        required=False,
    )

    current_revision = forms.IntegerField(required=False, widget=forms.HiddenInput())

    def __init__(self, request, current_revision, *args, **kwargs):


## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 10 from gadget-board

gadget-board is a Django, Django REST Framework (DRF) and Angular web application that is open source under the Apache2 license.

gadget-board / web / gadgets / permissions.py

# permissions.py
from rest_framework import permissions
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404
from .models import Gadget


class CanUserAddGadgetData(permissions.BasePermission):
    def has_permission(self, request, view):
        if request.method in permissions.SAFE_METHODS:
            return True
        if request.method == "POST":
            if request.user.is_authenticated:
                gadget = get_object_or_404(Gadget, slug=view.kwargs['gadget_slug'])
                if request.user in gadget.users_can_upload.all():
                    return True
        return False

    def has_object_permission(self, request, view, obj):
        return False



## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

Example 11 from wagtail

wagtail (project website) is a fantastic Django-based CMS with code that is open source under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License.

wagtail / wagtail / core / views.py

# views.py
from django.http import Http404, HttpResponse
from django.shortcuts import get_object_or_404, redirect
from django.urls import reverse

from wagtail.core import hooks
from wagtail.core.forms import PasswordViewRestrictionForm
from wagtail.core.models import Page, PageViewRestriction, Site


def serve(request, path):
    site = Site.find_for_request(request)
    if not site:
        raise Http404

    path_components = [component for component in path.split('/') if component]
    page, args, kwargs = site.root_page.specific.route(request, path_components)

    for fn in hooks.get_hooks('before_serve_page'):
        result = fn(page, request, args, kwargs)
        if isinstance(result, HttpResponse):
            return result

    return page.serve(request, *args, **kwargs)


def authenticate_with_password(request, page_view_restriction_id, page_id):
    restriction = get_object_or_404(PageViewRestriction, id=page_view_restriction_id)
    page = get_object_or_404(Page, id=page_id).specific

    if request.method == 'POST':
        form = PasswordViewRestrictionForm(request.POST, instance=restriction)
        if form.is_valid():
            restriction.mark_as_passed(request)

            return redirect(form.cleaned_data['return_url'])
    else:
        form = PasswordViewRestrictionForm(instance=restriction)

    action_url = reverse('wagtailcore_authenticate_with_password', args=[restriction.id, page.id])
    return page.serve_password_required_response(request, form, action_url)



## ... source file continues with no further get_object_or_404 examples...

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BaseFormdjango.forms CheckboxInputdjango.forms CheckboxSelectMultipledjango.forms DateInputdjango.forms Fielddjango.forms FileInputdjango.forms FilePathFielddjango.forms Formdjango.forms HiddenInputdjango.forms ImageFielddjango.forms Mediadjango.forms MediaDefiningClassdjango.forms ModelChoiceFielddjango.forms ModelFormdjango.forms ModelMultipleChoiceFielddjango.forms MultipleChoiceFielddjango.forms Selectdjango.forms SelectMultipledjango.forms ValidationErrordjango.shortcuts get_list_or_404django.shortcuts get_object_or_404django.shortcuts redirectdjango.shortcuts renderdjango.shortcuts resolve_urldjango.template.base Contextdjango.template.base FilterExpressiondjango.template.base Nodedjango.template.base NodeListdjango.template.base Parserdjango.template.base Templatedjango.template.base TemplateSyntaxErrordjango.template.base TextNodedjango.template.base Tokendjango.template.base TokenTypedjango.template.base VariableDoesNotExistdjango.template.base VariableNodedjango.template.base token_kwargsdjango.urls URLPatterndjango.urls URLResolverdjango.urls clear_url_cachesdjango.urls get_callabledjango.urls get_resolverdjango.urls get_script_prefixdjango.urls includedjango.urls re_pathdjango.urls register_converterdjango.urls resolvedjango.urls reversedjango.utils dateformatdjango.utils dateparsedjango.utils datetime_safedjango.utils formatsdjango.utils module_loadingdjango.utils termcolorsdjango.utils translationdjango.utils treedjango.utils.cache add_never_cache_headersdjango.utils.cache cc_delim_redjango.utils.cache patch_cache_controldjango.utils.cache patch_response_headersdjango.utils.cache patch_vary_headersdjango.utils.crypto constant_time_comparedjango.utils.crypto get_random_stringdjango.utils.datastructures MultiValueDictdjango.utils.dateparse parse_datetimedjango.utils.dateparse parse_durationdjango.utils.dates MONTHSdjango.utils.datetime_safe datetimedjango.utils.decorators method_decoratordjango.utils.deprecation MiddlewareMixindjango.utils.deprecation RenameMethodsBasedjango.utils.duration duration_stringdjango.utils.encoding DjangoUnicodeDecodeErrordjango.utils.encoding filepath_to_uridjango.utils.encoding force_bytesdjango.utils.encoding force_strdjango.utils.encoding force_textdjango.utils.encoding iri_to_uridjango.utils.encoding is_protected_typedjango.utils.encoding smart_bytesdjango.utils.encoding smart_strdjango.utils.encoding smart_textdjango.utils.encoding uri_to_iridjango.utils.formats get_formatdjango.utils.formats localize_inputdjango.utils.formats sanitize_separatorsdjango.utils.functional LazyObjectdjango.utils.functional Promisedjango.utils.functional SimpleLazyObjectdjango.utils.functional keep_lazydjango.utils.functional lazydjango.utils.functional total_orderingdjango.utils.functional wrapsdjango.utils.html conditional_escapedjango.utils.html escapedjango.utils.html escapejsdjango.utils.html format_html_joindjango.utils.html mark_safedjango.utils.html smart_urlquotedjango.utils.html strip_tagsdjango.utils.http base36_to_intdjango.utils.http http_datedjango.utils.http int_to_base36django.utils.http is_safe_urldjango.utils.http unquotedjango.utils.http url_has_allowed_host_and_schemedjango.utils.http urlencodedjango.utils.http urlquotedjango.utils.http urlunquotedjango.utils.ipv6 clean_ipv6_addressdjango.utils.itercompat is_iterabledjango.utils.module_loading autodiscover_modulesdjango.utils.module_loading import_stringdjango.utils.module_loading module_has_submoduledjango.utils.numberformat formatdjango.utils.safestring SafeDatadjango.utils.safestring SafeTextdjango.utils.safestring mark_safedjango.utils.termcolors colorizedjango.utils.text Truncatordjango.utils.text capfirstdjango.utils.text format_lazydjango.utils.text get_text_listdjango.utils.text get_valid_filenamedjango.utils.text slugifydjango.utils.timezone get_current_timezonedjango.utils.timezone make_awaredjango.utils.timezone nowdjango.utils.timezone timedeltadjango.utils.translation LANGUAGE_SESSION_KEYdjango.utils.translation activatedjango.utils.translation deactivate_alldjango.utils.translation get_languagedjango.utils.translation get_language_from_requestdjango.utils.translation gettextdjango.utils.translation gettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ngettextdjango.utils.translation overridedjango.utils.translation pgettextdjango.utils.translation pgettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ugettextdjango.utils.translation ugettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ungettextdjango.utils.translation ungettext_lazydjango.utils.version get_complete_versiondjango.views csrfdjango.views.debug get_default_exception_reporter_filterdjango.views.decorators.csrf csrf_exemptdjango.views.decorators.debug sensitive_post_parametersdjango.views.decorators.http require_GETdjango.views.decorators.http require_POSTdjango.views.generic CreateViewdjango.views.generic DeleteViewdjango.views.generic DetailViewdjango.views.generic FormViewdjango.views.generic ListViewdjango.views.generic RedirectViewdjango.views.generic TemplateViewdjango.views.generic UpdateViewdjango.views.generic Viewdjango.views.generic.base RedirectViewdjango.views.generic.base TemplateResponseMixindjango.views.generic.base TemplateViewdjango.views.generic.base Viewdjango.views.generic.detail SingleObjectMixindjango.views.generic.edit CreateViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeleteViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeletionMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormViewdjango.views.generic.list ListViewdjango.views.generic.list MultipleObjectMixindjango.views.i18n JavaScriptCatalogdjango.views.static servedjango.views.static was_modified_sincedjango.contrib.auth.decorators login_requireddjango.contrib.auth get_user_modeldjango.contrib.auth.hashers make_passworddjango.core.exceptions ImproperlyConfigureddjango.core.mail.messages EmailMessagedjango.core.mail.send_maildjango.core.management.base BaseCommanddjango.db.models AutoFielddjango.db.models BooleanFielddjango.db.models CharFielddjango.db.models DateFielddjango.db.models DateTimeFielddjango.db.models FileFielddjango.db.models ForeignKeydjango.db.models GenericIPAddressFielddjango.db.models ImageFielddjango.db.models IntegerFielddjango.db.models Modeldjango.db.models PositiveIntegerFielddjango.db.models PositiveSmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models.signaldjango.db.models SlugFielddjango.db.models SmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models TextFielddjango.db OperationalErrordjango.dispatch Signaldjango.formsdjango.forms BooleanFielddjango.forms CharFielddjango.forms ChoiceFielddjango.forms DateFielddjango.forms DateTimeFielddjango.forms EmailFielddjango.forms IntegerFielddjango.forms TypedChoiceFielddjango.http Http404django.http HttpResponsedjango.http HttpResponseBadRequestdjango.http HttpResponseForbiddendjango.http HttpResponseNotModifieddjango.http HttpResponsePermanentRedirectdjango.http HttpResponseRedirectdjango.template.response SimpleTemplateResponsedjango.template.response TemplateResponsedjango.urls.pathdjango.urls reverse_lazydjango.urls.exceptions NoReverseMatchdjango.urls.exceptions Resolver404django.utils.html format_htmldjango.utils.timezone ...or view the full table of contents.

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