Canonical's Ubuntu 16.04 Long Term Support (LTS) Linux operating system, also known as "Xenial Xerus", was released in April 2016. It is the first Ubuntu release to include Python 3 instead of Python 2 as its default Python installation.
The Pyramid web framework has long supported Python 3. With just a few short steps we can start a new Pyramid project and run it with Green Unicorn (Gunicorn) on Ubuntu 16.04.
Our project requires Ubuntu 16.04 plus several code libraries. You do not need to install these tools yet - we will get to them in turn as the walkthrough progresses. Our requirements and their current versions are:
If you are developing on Mac OS X or Windows, you can use virtualization software such as Parallels or VirtualBox with the Ubuntu .iso file. Either the amd64 or i386 version of 16.04 is fine. While creating this I used the amd64 version.
A desktop screen like this one appears when you boot up Ubuntu.
Open a new terminal window so we can be ready to install required system packages.
The precise Python version can be shown using the
python command with the
We can also view where the
python3 program is installed on Ubuntu using the
Ubuntu requires a few system packages before we can properly install Pyramid
and Gunicorn. When we run the
apt command to install system packages we
will be prompted for the superuser password. Restricted system access is
necessary to modify files within the system folders.
sudo apt-get install python3-dev
y then return to let the system package installation run.
The required system packages are installed. We can now install the Python-specific dependencies.
Create a directory for the virtual environments. Then create a new virtual environment.
# the tilde "~" specifies the user's home directory, like /home/matt cd ~ mkdir venvs # specify the system python3 installation /usr/bin/python3 -m venv venvs/pyramidproj
Activate the virtual environment.
Our prompt will change after we properly activate the virtual environment to
(pyramidproj) [email protected]:~$.
Our virtual environment is activated with Python 3.
We should update pip and venv to the latest versions in our virtual environment.
pip install --upgrade pip setuptools
We can install whatever dependencies we want, in our case Pyramid and Gunicorn.
We can install Pyramid, Gunicorn and Waitress into our virtual environment using
pip install pip install "pyramid==1.7" gunicorn waitress
No errors like we see in the following screenshot is a good sign.
Pyramid comes with a project starter template creation tool named
pcreate to generate the boilerplate for a new Pyramid project named
pcreate -s starter pyramidproj
cd (change directory) command to move into the new folder.
A slew of new files have been created within the "pyramidproj" directory. These are the basic files you can customize for the web application you want to build. A good resource for understanding and modifying these files is to follow the quick tutorial for Pyramid.
For now, we just want to use Gunicorn to run our starter pyramidproj app.
Install pyramidproj into your virtual environment using the
python command on
python setup.py develop
Now we can run our app with Gunicorn. Pyramid is a
framework, so we use the
--paste argument to run the WSGI server with
the "development.ini" configuration file. In addition, the
tells Gunicorn which port number to bind on when the server starts.
gunicorn --paste development.ini -b :8080
Cool, we can bring up our starter Pyramid project up in the web browser at
Time to develop a full-fledged web application with Pyramid!
Now you have a simple setup to develop Pyramid web apps using Gunicorn as the WSGI server on Ubuntu 16.04. If you need a full step-by-step tutorial to deploy your Python web application to a production environment, check out the Full Stack Python Guide to Deployments book.
To decide what to do next with your Python project, check out the Full Stack Python table of contents page.
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