The Web has grown a mindboggling amount in the number of sites, users and implementation capabilities since the first website went live in 1989. Web development is the concept that encompasses all the activities involved with websites and web applications.
Python can be used to build server-side web applications. While a web framework is not required to build web apps, it's rare that developers would not use existing open source libraries to speed up their progress in getting their application working.
How the Internet works is a must-read to get a quick overview of all the pieces that go into a network connection from one machine to another. The example explains how an email is sent and the story is just as useful for learning about other connections such as downloading a webpage.
If you want to be a web developer it's important to know the foundational tools used to build websites and web applications. It is also important to understand that the core concepts such as HTTP, URLs and HTML were all there at the beginning and then were expanded with new specifications over time. This article on the History of the Web succinctly explains the origins of the web starting from Tim Berners-Lee's origin vision and release at CERN.
Web Architecture 101 is a great high-level overview of the technologies that run the modern web, such as DNS, load balancers, web application servers (for Python that equates to WSGI servers), data bases, task queues, caching and several other critical concepts.
The Evolution of the Web visualizes how web browsers and related technologies have changed over time as well as the overall growth of the Internet in the amount of data transferred. Note that the visualization unfortunately stops around the beginning of 2013 but it's a good way to explore what happened in the first 24 years.
What happens when? is an incredibly detailed answer to the questions "What happens when you type google.com into your browser's address box and press enter?" that seems straightforward on the surface until you really dig in.
The history of the URL explains how the growth of ARPANET to hundreds of nodes eventually led to the creation of the URL. This is a great read that provides historical context for why things are the way they are with the web.
Web app checklist presents good practices that developers building and deploying web applications should follow. Don't worry about having every single one of these recommendations implemented before getting your site live, but it is worthwhile to review the list to make sure there is not something obvious you can handle in a few minutes that will improve your site's security, performance or usability.
The Browser Hacker's Guide to Instantly Loading Everything is a spectacular technical talk given by Addy Osmani at JSConf EU 2017 that has great bits of developer knowledge for both beginner and experienced web developers alike.
Build a web application from scratch and its follow on posts for request handling middleware explores the fundamentals of web development. Learning these foundational concepts is critical for a web developer even though you should still plan to use an established web framework such as Django or Flask to build real-world applications. The open source code for these posts is available on GitHub.
While not Python-specific, Mozilla put together a Learning the Web tutorial for beginners and intermediate web users who want to build websites. It's worth a look for general web development learning.
Web development involves HTTP communication between the server, hosting a website or web application, and the client, a web browser. Knowing how web browsers works is important as a developer, so take a look at this article on what's in a web browser.
Ping at the speed of light dives into the computer networking weeds with how fast packets travel through the internet plumbing. The author created a Python script that scrapes network speeds from disparate locations to see what the network speed is in fiber optic cables as a percentage of the speed of light.
The critical path: optimizing load times with the Chrome DevTools provides a well-written explanation about using Chrome's developer features to improve the performance of your websites and web applications.
Three takeaways for web developers after two weeks of painfully slow Internet is a must-read for every web developer. Not everyone has fast Internet service, whether because they are in a remote part of the world or they're just in a subway tunnel. Optimizing sites so they work in those situations is important for keeping your users happy.
The History of the URL: Path, Fragment, Query, and Auth gives a comprenhensive historical perspective on the fundamental way to link to resources on the web. This post should be required reading for web developers.
How to understand performance tests is an important topic because many websites are slow and bloated. Learning about improving the performance of your site is one of the best ways to become a better web developer. Another great article on website performance is The average web page is 3MB. How much should we care?. The visuals alone tell a compelling story about how large webpage sizes have grown in recent years.