django.core management code examples

management is a function within the django.core module of the Django project.

Example 1 from django-cms

django-cms (project website) is a Python-based content management system (CMS) library for use with Django web apps that is open sourced under the BSD 3-Clause "New" license.

django-cms / cms / tests / test_management.py

# test_management.py
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import uuid
from cms.test_utils.project.sampleapp.cms_apps import SampleApp
from cms.test_utils.util.context_managers import apphooks

from six.moves import StringIO

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
from django.core import management
from django.core.management import CommandError
from django.test.utils import override_settings

from cms.api import create_page, add_plugin, create_title
from cms.management.commands.subcommands.list import plugin_report
from cms.models import Page, StaticPlaceholder
from cms.models.placeholdermodel import Placeholder
from cms.models.pluginmodel import CMSPlugin
from cms.test_utils.fixtures.navextenders import NavextendersFixture
from cms.test_utils.testcases import CMSTestCase
from djangocms_text_ckeditor.cms_plugins import TextPlugin


APPHOOK = "SampleApp"
PLUGIN = "TextPlugin"

TEST_INSTALLED_APPS = [
    "django.contrib.auth",
    "cms",
    "menus",
    "sekizai",
    "treebeard",
] + settings.PLUGIN_APPS
if settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL == "emailuserapp.EmailUser":
    TEST_INSTALLED_APPS.append("cms.test_utils.project.emailuserapp")
if settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL == "customuserapp.User":
    TEST_INSTALLED_APPS.append("cms.test_utils.project.customuserapp")


class ManagementTestCase(CMSTestCase):
    @override_settings(INSTALLED_APPS=TEST_INSTALLED_APPS)
    def test_list_apphooks(self):
        with apphooks(SampleApp):
            out = StringIO()
            create_page('Hello Title', "nav_playground.html", "en", apphook=APPHOOK)
            self.assertEqual(Page.objects.filter(application_urls=APPHOOK).count(), 1)
            management.call_command(
                "cms",
                "list",
                "apphooks",
                interactive=False,
                stdout=out,
            )
            self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), "SampleApp (draft)\n")

    def test_uninstall_apphooks_without_apphook(self):
        with apphooks():
            out = StringIO()
            management.call_command(
                "cms",
                "uninstall",
                "apphooks",
                APPHOOK,
                interactive=False,
                stdout=out,
            )
            self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), "no 'SampleApp' apphooks found\n")

    def test_fix_tree(self):
        create_page("home", "nav_playground.html", "en")
        page1 = create_page("page", "nav_playground.html", "en")
        page1.node.depth = 3
        page1.node.numchild = 4
        page1.node.path = "00100010"
        page1.node.save()
        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command('cms', 'fix-tree', interactive=False, stdout=out)
        self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), 'fixing page tree\nfixing plugin tree\nall done\n')
        page1 = page1.reload()
        self.assertEqual(page1.node.path, "0002")
        self.assertEqual(page1.node.depth, 1)
        self.assertEqual(page1.node.numchild, 0)

    def test_fix_tree_regression_5641(self):
        alpha = create_page("Alpha", "nav_playground.html", "en", published=True)
        beta = create_page("Beta", "nav_playground.html", "en", published=False)
        gamma = create_page("Gamma", "nav_playground.html", "en", published=False)
        delta = create_page("Delta", "nav_playground.html", "en", published=True)
        theta = create_page("Theta", "nav_playground.html", "en", published=True)

        beta.move_page(alpha.node, position='last-child')
        gamma.move_page(beta.node, position='last-child')
        delta.move_page(gamma.node, position='last-child')
        theta.move_page(delta.node, position='last-child')

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command('cms', 'fix-tree', interactive=False, stdout=out)

        tree = [
            (alpha, '0001'),
            (beta, '00010001'),
            (gamma, '000100010001'),
            (delta, '0001000100010001'),
            (theta, '00010001000100010001'),
        ]

        for page, path in tree:
            self.assertEqual(page.node.path, path)

    @override_settings(INSTALLED_APPS=TEST_INSTALLED_APPS)
    def test_uninstall_apphooks_with_apphook(self):
        with apphooks(SampleApp):
            out = StringIO()
            create_page('Hello Title', "nav_playground.html", "en", apphook=APPHOOK)
            self.assertEqual(Page.objects.filter(application_urls=APPHOOK).count(), 1)
            management.call_command(
                "cms",
                "uninstall",
                "apphooks",
                APPHOOK,
                interactive=False,
                stdout=out,
            )
            self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), "1 'SampleApp' apphooks uninstalled\n")
            self.assertEqual(Page.objects.filter(application_urls=APPHOOK).count(), 0)

    @override_settings(INSTALLED_APPS=TEST_INSTALLED_APPS)
    def test_list_plugins(self):
        out = StringIO()
        placeholder = Placeholder.objects.create(slot="test")
        add_plugin(placeholder, TextPlugin, "en", body="en body")
        add_plugin(placeholder, TextPlugin, "en", body="en body")
        link_plugin = add_plugin(placeholder, "LinkPlugin", "en",
                                 name="A Link", external_link="https://www.django-cms.org")
        self.assertEqual(
            CMSPlugin.objects.filter(plugin_type=PLUGIN).count(),
            2)
        self.assertEqual(
            CMSPlugin.objects.filter(plugin_type="LinkPlugin").count(),
            1)

        instanceless_plugin = CMSPlugin(language="en", plugin_type="TextPlugin")
        instanceless_plugin.save()

        bogus_plugin = CMSPlugin(language="en", plugin_type="BogusPlugin")
        bogus_plugin.save()

        management.call_command('cms', 'list', 'plugins', interactive=False, stdout=out)
        report = plugin_report()

        self.assertEqual(
            len(report),
            3)

        bogus_plugins_report = report[0]
        self.assertEqual(
            bogus_plugins_report["model"],
            None)

        self.assertEqual(
            bogus_plugins_report["type"],
            u'BogusPlugin')

        self.assertEqual(
            bogus_plugins_report["instances"][0],
            bogus_plugin)

        link_plugins_report = report[1]
        self.assertEqual(
            link_plugins_report["model"],
            link_plugin.__class__)



## ... source file abbreviated to get to management examples ...


        bogus_plugins_report = report[0]
        self.assertEqual(
            len(bogus_plugins_report["instances"]),
            1)

        link_plugins_report = report[1]
        self.assertEqual(
            len(link_plugins_report["instances"]),
            1)

        text_plugins_report = report[2]
        self.assertEqual(
            len(text_plugins_report["instances"]),
            3)

        self.assertEqual(
            len(text_plugins_report["unsaved_instances"]),
            1)

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command('cms', 'delete-orphaned-plugins', interactive=False, stdout=out)
        report = plugin_report()

        self.assertEqual(
            len(report),
            2)

        link_plugins_report = report[0]
        self.assertEqual(
            len(link_plugins_report["instances"]),
            1)

        text_plugins_report = report[1]
        self.assertEqual(
            len(text_plugins_report["instances"]),
            2)

        self.assertEqual(
            len(text_plugins_report["unsaved_instances"]),
            0)

    def test_uninstall_plugins_without_plugin(self):
        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command('cms', 'uninstall', 'plugins', PLUGIN, interactive=False, stdout=out)
        self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), "no 'TextPlugin' plugins found\n")

    @override_settings(INSTALLED_APPS=TEST_INSTALLED_APPS)
    def test_uninstall_plugins_with_plugin(self):
        out = StringIO()
        placeholder = Placeholder.objects.create(slot="test")
        add_plugin(placeholder, TextPlugin, "en", body="en body")
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(plugin_type=PLUGIN).count(), 1)
        management.call_command('cms', 'uninstall', 'plugins', PLUGIN, interactive=False, stdout=out)
        self.assertEqual(out.getvalue(), "1 'TextPlugin' plugins uninstalled\n")
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(plugin_type=PLUGIN).count(), 0)

    def test_publisher_public(self):
        admin = self.get_superuser()
        create_page(
            'home',
            published=True,
            language='de',
            template='nav_playground.html',
            created_by=admin,
        )
        page_1 = create_page(
            'página 1',
            published=True,
            language='de',
            template='nav_playground.html',
            created_by=admin,
        )
        page_1.unpublish('de')

        page_2 = create_page(
            'página 2',
            published=True,
            language='de',
            template='nav_playground.html',
            created_by=admin,
        )
        page_2.unpublish('de')

        management.call_command(
            'cms',
            'publisher-publish',
            '-l de',
            '--unpublished',
            interactive=False,
        )

        self.assertEqual(Page.objects.public().count(), 3)


class PageFixtureManagementTestCase(NavextendersFixture, CMSTestCase):

    def _fill_page_body(self, page, lang):
        ph_en = page.placeholders.get(slot="body")
        mcol1 = add_plugin(ph_en, "MultiColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child")
        add_plugin(ph_en, "ColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child", target=mcol1)
        col2 = add_plugin(ph_en, "ColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child", target=mcol1)
        mcol2 = add_plugin(ph_en, "MultiColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child", target=col2)
        add_plugin(ph_en, "ColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child", target=mcol2)
        col4 = add_plugin(ph_en, "ColumnPlugin", lang, position="first-child", target=mcol2)
        add_plugin(ph_en, "LinkPlugin", lang, target=col4,
                                    name="A Link", external_link="https://www.django-cms.org")
        static_placeholder = StaticPlaceholder(code=str(uuid.uuid4()), site_id=1)
        static_placeholder.save()
        add_plugin(static_placeholder.draft, "TextPlugin", lang, body="example content")

    def setUp(self):
        pages = Page.objects.drafts()
        for page in pages:
            self._fill_page_body(page, "en")

    def test_copy_langs(self):
        site = 1
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=en', '--to-lang=de', interactive=False, stdout=out
        )
        pages = Page.objects.on_site(site).drafts()
        for page in pages:
            self.assertEqual(set((u'en', u'de')), set(page.get_languages()))
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.all().count(), number_start_plugins*2)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), number_start_plugins)

        root_page = Page.objects.get_home(site)
        root_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder=root_page.placeholders.get(slot="body"))

        first_plugin_en, _ = root_plugins.get(language='en', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()
        first_plugin_de, _ = root_plugins.get(language='de', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertEqual(first_plugin_en.plugin_type, first_plugin_de.plugin_type)

        link_en, _ = root_plugins.get(language='en', plugin_type='LinkPlugin').get_plugin_instance()
        link_de, _ = root_plugins.get(language='de', plugin_type='LinkPlugin').get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertEqual(link_en.external_link, link_de.external_link)
        self.assertEqual(link_en.get_position_in_placeholder(), link_de.get_position_in_placeholder())

        stack_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder=StaticPlaceholder.objects.order_by('?')[0].draft)

        stack_text_en, _ = stack_plugins.get(language='en', plugin_type='TextPlugin').get_plugin_instance()
        stack_text_de, _ = stack_plugins.get(language='de', plugin_type='TextPlugin').get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertEqual(stack_text_en.plugin_type, stack_text_de.plugin_type)
        self.assertEqual(stack_text_en.body, stack_text_de.body)

    def test_copy_langs_no_content(self):
        site = 1
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=en', '--to-lang=de', '--skip-content',
            interactive=False, stdout=out
        )
        pages = Page.objects.on_site(site).drafts()
        for page in pages:
            self.assertEqual(set((u'en', u'de')), set(page.get_languages()))
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.all().count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), 0)

        root_page = Page.objects.get_home(site)
        root_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(
            placeholder=root_page.placeholders.get(slot="body"))

        first_plugin_en, _ = root_plugins.get(language='en', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()
        first_plugin_de = None
        with self.assertRaises(CMSPlugin.DoesNotExist):
            first_plugin_de, _ = root_plugins.get(language='de', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertIsNone(first_plugin_de)

        stack_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(
            placeholder=StaticPlaceholder.objects.order_by('?')[0].draft)

        stack_text_en, _ = stack_plugins.get(language='en',
                                             plugin_type='TextPlugin').get_plugin_instance()
        with self.assertRaises(CMSPlugin.DoesNotExist):
            stack_text_de, _ = stack_plugins.get(language='de',
                                                 plugin_type='TextPlugin').get_plugin_instance()

    def test_copy_sites(self):
        site_1_pk = 1
        site_1 = Site.objects.get(pk=site_1_pk)
        site_2 = Site.objects.create(name='site 2')
        site_2_pk = site_2.pk
        phs = []
        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_1_pk).drafts():
            phs.extend(page.placeholders.values_list('pk', flat=True))
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder__in=phs).count()

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'site', '--from-site=%s' % site_1_pk, '--to-site=%s' % site_2_pk,
            stdout=out
        )
        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_1_pk).drafts():
            page.publish('en')
        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_2_pk).drafts():
            page.publish('en')

        pages_1 = list(Page.objects.drafts().on_site(site_1).select_related('node').order_by('node__path'))
        pages_2 = list(Page.objects.drafts().on_site(site_2).select_related('node').order_by('node__path'))
        for index, page in enumerate(pages_1):
            self.assertEqual(page.get_title('en'), pages_2[index].get_title('en'))
            self.assertEqual(page.node.depth, pages_2[index].node.depth)

        phs_1 = []
        phs_2 = []
        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_1_pk).drafts():
            phs_1.extend(page.placeholders.values_list('pk', flat=True))
        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_2_pk).drafts():
            phs_2.extend(page.placeholders.values_list('pk', flat=True))

        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder__in=phs_1).count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder__in=phs_2).count(), number_start_plugins)



## ... source file abbreviated to get to management examples ...



        first_plugin_1, _ = root_plugins_1.get(language='en', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()
        first_plugin_2, _ = root_plugins_2.get(language='en', parent=None).get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertEqual(first_plugin_1.plugin_type, first_plugin_2.plugin_type)

        link_1, _ = root_plugins_1.get(language='en', plugin_type='LinkPlugin').get_plugin_instance()
        link_2, _ = root_plugins_2.get(language='en', plugin_type='LinkPlugin').get_plugin_instance()

        self.assertEqual(link_1.external_link, link_2.external_link)
        self.assertEqual(link_1.get_position_in_placeholder(), link_2.get_position_in_placeholder())

    def test_copy_existing_title(self):
        site = 1
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()

        root_page = Page.objects.get_home(site)
        create_title("de", "root page de", root_page)

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=en', '--to-lang=de', interactive=False, stdout=out
        )
        pages = Page.objects.on_site(site).drafts()
        for page in pages:
            self.assertEqual(set((u'en', u'de')), set(page.get_languages()))

        self.assertEqual("root page de", Page.objects.get_home(site).get_title("de"))

        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.all().count(), number_start_plugins*2)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), number_start_plugins)

    def test_copy_filled_placeholder(self):
        site = 1
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()

        root_page = Page.objects.get_home(site)
        create_title("de", "root page de", root_page)
        ph = root_page.placeholders.get(slot="body")
        add_plugin(ph, "TextPlugin", "de", body="Hello World")

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=en', '--to-lang=de', interactive=False, stdout=out
        )

        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), number_start_plugins-6)

    def test_copy_filled_placeholder_force_copy(self):
        site = 1
        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()

        root_page = Page.objects.get_home(site)
        create_title("de", "root page de", root_page)
        ph = root_page.placeholders.get(slot="body")
        add_plugin(ph, "TextPlugin", "de", body="Hello World")

        root_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder=ph)
        text_de_orig, _ = root_plugins.get(language='de', plugin_type='TextPlugin').get_plugin_instance()

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=en', '--to-lang=de', '--force', interactive=False,
            stdout=out
        )

        CMSPlugin.objects.filter(placeholder=root_page.placeholders.get(slot="body"))

        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), number_start_plugins+1)

    def test_copy_from_non_existing_lang(self):
        site = 1
        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=de', '--to-lang=fr', verbosity=3,
            interactive=False, stdout=out
        )
        text = out.getvalue()
        page_count = Page.objects.on_site(site).drafts().count() + 1
        for idx in range(1, page_count):
            self.assertTrue("Skipping page page%d, language de not defined" % idx in text)

    def test_copy_site_safe(self):
        site_other = 1
        site_active = 2
        origina_site1_langs = {}

        number_start_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count()
        site_obj = Site.objects.create(domain="sample2.com", name="sample2.com", pk=site_active)

        for page in Page.objects.on_site(1).drafts():
            origina_site1_langs[page.pk] = set(page.get_languages())

        p1 = create_page('page1', published=True, in_navigation=True, language='de', template='nav_playground.html', site=site_obj)
        create_page('page4', published=True, in_navigation=True, language='de', template='nav_playground.html', site=site_obj)
        create_page('page2', published=True, in_navigation=True, parent=p1, language='de', template='nav_playground.html', site=site_obj)

        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_active).drafts():
            self._fill_page_body(page, 'de')

        number_site2_plugins = CMSPlugin.objects.all().count() - number_start_plugins

        out = StringIO()
        management.call_command(
            'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=de', '--to-lang=fr', '--site=%s' % site_active,
            interactive=False, stdout=out
        )

        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_other).drafts():
            self.assertEqual(origina_site1_langs[page.pk], set(page.get_languages()))

        for page in Page.objects.on_site(site_active).drafts():
            self.assertEqual(set(('de', 'fr')), set(page.get_languages()))

        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='en').count(), number_start_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='de').count(), number_site2_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.filter(language='fr').count(), number_site2_plugins)
        self.assertEqual(CMSPlugin.objects.all().count(), number_start_plugins + number_site2_plugins*2)

    def test_copy_bad_languages(self):
        out = StringIO()
        with self.assertRaises(CommandError) as command_error:
            management.call_command(
                'cms', 'copy', 'lang', '--from-lang=it', '--to-lang=fr', interactive=False,
                stdout=out
            )

        self.assertEqual(str(command_error.exception), 'Both languages have to be present in settings.LANGUAGES and settings.CMS_LANGUAGES')



## ... source file continues with no further management examples...

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1. Introduction 2. Development Environments 3. Data 4. Web Development 5. Deployment 6. DevOps Changelog What Full Stack Means About the Author Future Directions Page Statuses Django ExtensionsDjango Example Codedjango.apps.config AppConfigdjango.conf settingsdjango.conf.urls.urldjango.contrib.admindjango.contrib.admin.filters SimpleListFilterdjango.contrib.admin.sites registerdjango.contrib.admin helpersdjango.contrib.admin.helpers ActionFormdjango.contrib.admin.helpers AdminFormdjango.contrib.admin.options IS_POPUP_VARdjango.contrib.admin.options IncorrectLookupParametersdjango.contrib.admin.options ModelAdmindjango.contrib.admin.options csrf_protect_mdjango.contrib.admin.sites NotRegistereddjango.contrib.admin.sites sitedjango.core cachedjango.core checksdjango.core exceptionsdjango.core maildjango.core managementdjango.core serializersdjango.core signalsdjango.core signingdjango.core validatorsdjango.utils translationdjango.utils.translation LANGUAGE_SESSION_KEYdjango.utils.translation activatedjango.utils.translation deactivate_alldjango.utils.translation get_languagedjango.utils.translation get_language_from_requestdjango.utils.translation gettextdjango.utils.translation gettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ngettextdjango.utils.translation overridedjango.utils.translation pgettextdjango.utils.translation pgettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ugettextdjango.utils.translation ugettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ungettextdjango.utils.translation ungettext_lazydjango.utils.version get_complete_versiondjango.views csrfdjango.views.debug get_default_exception_reporter_filterdjango.views.decorators.csrf csrf_exemptdjango.views.decorators.debug sensitive_post_parametersdjango.views.decorators.http require_GETdjango.views.decorators.http require_POSTdjango.views.generic CreateViewdjango.views.generic DeleteViewdjango.views.generic DetailViewdjango.views.generic FormViewdjango.views.generic ListViewdjango.views.generic RedirectViewdjango.views.generic TemplateViewdjango.views.generic UpdateViewdjango.views.generic Viewdjango.views.generic.base RedirectViewdjango.views.generic.base TemplateResponseMixindjango.views.generic.base TemplateViewdjango.views.generic.base Viewdjango.views.generic.detail SingleObjectMixindjango.views.generic.edit CreateViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeleteViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeletionMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormViewdjango.views.generic.list ListViewdjango.views.generic.list MultipleObjectMixindjango.views.i18n JavaScriptCatalogdjango.views.static servedjango.views.static was_modified_sincedjango.contrib.auth.decorators login_requireddjango.contrib.auth get_user_modeldjango.contrib.auth.hashers make_passworddjango.core.exceptions ImproperlyConfigureddjango.core.mail.messages EmailMessagedjango.core.mail.send_maildjango.core.management.base BaseCommanddjango.db.models AutoFielddjango.db.models BooleanFielddjango.db.models CharFielddjango.db.models DateFielddjango.db.models DateTimeFielddjango.db.models FileFielddjango.db.models ForeignKeydjango.db.models GenericIPAddressFielddjango.db.models ImageFielddjango.db.models IntegerFielddjango.db.models Modeldjango.db.models PositiveIntegerFielddjango.db.models PositiveSmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models.signaldjango.db.models SlugFielddjango.db.models SmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models TextFielddjango.db OperationalErrordjango.dispatch Signaldjango.formsdjango.forms BooleanFielddjango.forms CharFielddjango.forms ChoiceFielddjango.forms DateFielddjango.forms DateTimeFielddjango.forms EmailFielddjango.forms IntegerFielddjango.forms TypedChoiceFielddjango.http Http404django.http HttpResponsedjango.http HttpResponseBadRequestdjango.http HttpResponseForbiddendjango.http HttpResponseNotModifieddjango.http HttpResponsePermanentRedirectdjango.http HttpResponseRedirectdjango.template.response SimpleTemplateResponsedjango.template.response TemplateResponsedjango.urls.pathdjango.urls reverse_lazydjango.urls.exceptions NoReverseMatchdjango.urls.exceptions Resolver404django.utils.html format_htmldjango.utils.timezone ...or view the full table of contents.

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Full Stack Python is an open book that explains concepts in plain language and provides helpful resources for those topics.
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Matt Makai 2012-2020