django.core.exceptions ObjectDoesNotExist Example Code

ObjectDoesNotExist is a class within the django.core.exceptions module of the Django project.

Example 1 from AuditLog

Auditlog (project documentation) is a Django app that logs changes to Python objects, similar to the Django admin's logs but with more details and output formats. Auditlog's source code is provided as open source under the MIT license.

AuditLog / src / auditlog / diff.py

# diff.py
from __future__ import unicode_literals

from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.db.models import Model, NOT_PROVIDED, DateTimeField
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.encoding import smart_text


def track_field(field):
    from auditlog.models import LogEntry
    if field.many_to_many:
        return False

    if getattr(field, 'remote_field', None) is not None and field.remote_field.model == LogEntry:
        return False

    elif getattr(field, 'rel', None) is not None and field.rel.to == LogEntry:
        return False

    return True


def get_fields_in_model(instance):
    assert isinstance(instance, Model)

    use_api = hasattr(instance._meta, 'get_fields') and callable(instance._meta.get_fields)

    if use_api:
        return [f for f in instance._meta.get_fields() if track_field(f)]
    return instance._meta.fields


def get_field_value(obj, field):
    if isinstance(field, DateTimeField):
        try:
            value = field.to_python(getattr(obj, field.name, None))
            if value is not None and settings.USE_TZ and not timezone.is_naive(value):
                value = timezone.make_naive(value, timezone=timezone.utc)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            value = field.default if field.default is not NOT_PROVIDED else None
    else:
        try:
            value = smart_text(getattr(obj, field.name, None))
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            value = field.default if field.default is not NOT_PROVIDED else None

    return value


def model_instance_diff(old, new):
    from auditlog.registry import auditlog

    if not(old is None or isinstance(old, Model)):
        raise TypeError("The supplied old instance is not a valid model instance.")
    if not(new is None or isinstance(new, Model)):
        raise TypeError("The supplied new instance is not a valid model instance.")

    diff = {}

    if old is not None and new is not None:
        fields = set(old._meta.fields + new._meta.fields)
        model_fields = auditlog.get_model_fields(new._meta.model)
    elif old is not None:
        fields = set(get_fields_in_model(old))
        model_fields = auditlog.get_model_fields(old._meta.model)
    elif new is not None:
        fields = set(get_fields_in_model(new))
        model_fields = auditlog.get_model_fields(new._meta.model)


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 2 from django-cms

django-cms (project website) is a Python-based content management system (CMS) library for use with Django web apps that is open sourced under the BSD 3-Clause "New" license.

django-cms / cms / test_utils / testcases.py

# testcases.py
import json
import sys
import warnings

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.contrib.auth.models import AnonymousUser, Permission
from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
from django.core.cache import cache
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.forms.models import model_to_dict
from django.template import engines
from django.template.context import Context
from django.test import testcases
from django.test.client import RequestFactory
from django.urls import reverse
from django.utils.http import urlencode
from django.utils.timezone import now
from django.utils.translation import activate
from menus.menu_pool import menu_pool

from six.moves.urllib.parse import unquote, urljoin

from cms.api import create_page
from cms.constants import (
    PUBLISHER_STATE_DEFAULT,
    PUBLISHER_STATE_DIRTY,
    PUBLISHER_STATE_PENDING,
)
from cms.plugin_rendering import ContentRenderer, StructureRenderer
from cms.models import Page
from cms.models.permissionmodels import (
    GlobalPagePermission,
    PagePermission,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


        page_data['pagepermission_set-2-TOTAL_FORMS'] = 0
        page_data['pagepermission_set-2-INITIAL_FORMS'] = 0
        page_data['pagepermission_set-2-MAX_NUM_FORMS'] = 0
        return page_data

    def print_page_structure(self, qs):
        for page in qs.order_by('path'):
            ident = "  " * page.level
            print(u"%s%s (%s), path: %s, depth: %s, numchild: %s" % (ident, page,
            page.pk, page.path, page.depth, page.numchild))

    def print_node_structure(self, nodes, *extra):
        def _rec(nodes, level=0):
            ident = level * '  '
            for node in nodes:
                raw_attrs = [(bit, getattr(node, bit, node.attr.get(bit, "unknown"))) for bit in extra]
                attrs = ', '.join(['%s: %r' % data for data in raw_attrs])
                print(u"%s%s: %s" % (ident, node.title, attrs))
                _rec(node.children, level + 1)

        _rec(nodes)

    def assertObjectExist(self, qs, **filter):
        try:
            return qs.get(**filter)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            pass
        raise self.failureException("ObjectDoesNotExist raised for filter %s" % filter)

    def assertObjectDoesNotExist(self, qs, **filter):
        try:
            qs.get(**filter)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            return
        raise self.failureException("ObjectDoesNotExist not raised for filter %s" % filter)

    def copy_page(self, page, target_page, position=0, target_site=None):
        from cms.utils.page import get_available_slug

        if target_site is None:
            target_site = target_page.node.site

        data = {
            'position': position,
            'target': target_page.pk,
            'source_site': page.node.site_id,
            'copy_permissions': 'on',
            'copy_moderation': 'on',
        }
        source_translation = page.title_set.all()[0]
        parent_translation = target_page.title_set.all()[0]
        language = source_translation.language
        copied_page_path = source_translation.get_path_for_base(parent_translation.path)
        new_page_slug = get_available_slug(target_site, copied_page_path, language)

        with self.settings(SITE_ID=target_site.pk):
            response = self.client.post(URL_CMS_PAGE + "%d/copy-page/" % page.pk, data)


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 3 from django-filer

django-filer (project documentation) is a file management library for uploading and organizing files and images in Django's admin interface. The project's code is available under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" open source license.

django-filer / filer / fields / folder.py

# folder.py
from __future__ import absolute_import

import warnings

from django import forms
from django.contrib.admin.sites import site
from django.contrib.admin.widgets import ForeignKeyRawIdWidget
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.db import models
from django.template.loader import render_to_string
from django.urls import reverse
from django.utils.http import urlencode
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe

from ..models import Folder
from ..utils.compatibility import truncate_words
from ..utils.model_label import get_model_label


class AdminFolderWidget(ForeignKeyRawIdWidget):
    choices = None
    input_type = 'hidden'
    is_hidden = False

    def render(self, name, value, attrs=None, renderer=None):
        obj = self.obj_for_value(value)
        css_id = attrs.get('id')
        css_id_folder = "%s_folder" % css_id
        css_id_description_txt = "%s_description_txt" % css_id
        if attrs is None:
            attrs = {}
        related_url = None


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


        context = {
            'hidden_input': hidden_input,
            'lookup_url': '%s%s' % (related_url, url),
            'lookup_name': name,
            'span_id': css_id_description_txt,
            'object': obj,
            'clear_id': '%s_clear' % css_id,
            'descid': css_id_description_txt,
            'noimg': 'filer/icons/nofile_32x32.png',
            'foldid': css_id_folder,
            'id': css_id,
        }
        html = render_to_string('admin/filer/widgets/admin_folder.html', context)
        return mark_safe(html)

    def label_for_value(self, value):
        obj = self.obj_for_value(value)
        return '&nbsp;<strong>%s</strong>' % truncate_words(obj, 14)

    def obj_for_value(self, value):
        if not value:
            return None
        try:
            key = self.rel.get_related_field().name
            obj = self.rel.model._default_manager.get(**{key: value})
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            obj = None
        return obj

    class Media(object):
        js = (
            'filer/js/addons/popup_handling.js',
        )


class AdminFolderFormField(forms.ModelChoiceField):
    widget = AdminFolderWidget

    def __init__(self, rel, queryset, to_field_name, *args, **kwargs):
        self.rel = rel
        self.queryset = queryset
        self.limit_choices_to = kwargs.pop('limit_choices_to', None)
        self.to_field_name = to_field_name
        self.max_value = None
        self.min_value = None
        kwargs.pop('widget', None)
        forms.Field.__init__(self, widget=self.widget(rel, site), *args, **kwargs)

    def widget_attrs(self, widget):
        widget.required = self.required


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 4 from django-guardian

django-guardian (project documentation and PyPI page) provides per-object permissions in Django projects by enhancing the existing authentication backend. The project's code is open source under the MIT license.

django-guardian / guardian / utils.py

# utils.py
import logging
import os
from itertools import chain

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth import REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME, get_user_model
from django.contrib.auth.models import AnonymousUser, Group
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist, PermissionDenied
from django.db.models import Model, QuerySet
from django.http import HttpResponseForbidden, HttpResponseNotFound
from django.shortcuts import render
from guardian.conf import settings as guardian_settings
from guardian.ctypes import get_content_type
from guardian.exceptions import NotUserNorGroup

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
abspath = lambda *p: os.path.abspath(os.path.join(*p))


def get_anonymous_user():
    User = get_user_model()
    lookup = {User.USERNAME_FIELD: guardian_settings.ANONYMOUS_USER_NAME}
    return User.objects.get(**lookup)


def get_identity(identity):
    if isinstance(identity, AnonymousUser):
        identity = get_anonymous_user()

    if isinstance(identity, QuerySet):
        identity_model_type = identity.model
        if identity_model_type == get_user_model():


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


    redirect_field_name = redirect_field_name or REDIRECT_FIELD_NAME


    has_permissions = False
    if accept_global_perms:
        has_permissions = all(request.user.has_perm(perm) for perm in perms)
    if not has_permissions:
        has_permissions = all(request.user.has_perm(perm, obj)
                              for perm in perms)

    if not has_permissions:
        if return_403:
            if guardian_settings.RENDER_403:
                response = render(request, guardian_settings.TEMPLATE_403)
                response.status_code = 403
                return response
            elif guardian_settings.RAISE_403:
                raise PermissionDenied
            return HttpResponseForbidden()
        if return_404:
            if guardian_settings.RENDER_404:
                response = render(request, guardian_settings.TEMPLATE_404)
                response.status_code = 404
                return response
            elif guardian_settings.RAISE_404:
                raise ObjectDoesNotExist
            return HttpResponseNotFound()
        else:
            from django.contrib.auth.views import redirect_to_login
            return redirect_to_login(request.get_full_path(),
                                     login_url,
                                     redirect_field_name)


from django.apps import apps as django_apps
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured

def get_obj_perm_model_by_conf(setting_name):
    try:
        setting_value = getattr(guardian_settings, setting_name)
        return django_apps.get_model(setting_value, require_ready=False)
    except ValueError as e:
        raise ImproperlyConfigured("{} must be of the form 'app_label.model_name'".format(setting_value)) from e
    except LookupError as e:
        raise ImproperlyConfigured(
            "{} refers to model '{}' that has not been installed".format(setting_name, setting_value)
        ) from e


def clean_orphan_obj_perms():


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 5 from django-haystack

django-haystack (project website and PyPI page) is a search abstraction layer that separates the Python search code in a Django web application from the search engine implementation that it runs on, such as Apache Solr, Elasticsearch or Whoosh.

The django-haystack project is open source under the BSD license.

django-haystack / haystack / models.py

# models.py

from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.utils.encoding import force_str
from django.utils.text import capfirst

from haystack.constants import DEFAULT_ALIAS
from haystack.exceptions import NotHandled, SpatialError
from haystack.utils import log as logging
from haystack.utils.app_loading import haystack_get_model

try:
    from geopy import distance as geopy_distance
except ImportError:
    geopy_distance = None


class SearchResult(object):

    def __init__(self, app_label, model_name, pk, score, **kwargs):
        self.app_label, self.model_name = app_label, model_name
        self.pk = pk
        self.score = score
        self._object = None
        self._model = None
        self._verbose_name = None
        self._additional_fields = []


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


        return self.__dict__.get(attr, None)

    def _get_searchindex(self):
        from haystack import connections

        return connections[DEFAULT_ALIAS].get_unified_index().get_index(self.model)

    searchindex = property(_get_searchindex)

    def _get_object(self):
        if self._object is None:
            if self.model is None:
                self.log.error("Model could not be found for SearchResult '%s'.", self)
                return None

            try:
                try:
                    self._object = self.searchindex.read_queryset().get(pk=self.pk)
                except NotHandled:
                    self.log.warning(
                        "Model '%s.%s' not handled by the routers.",
                        self.app_label,
                        self.model_name,
                    )
                    self._object = self.model._default_manager.get(pk=self.pk)
            except ObjectDoesNotExist:
                self.log.error(
                    "Object could not be found in database for SearchResult '%s'.", self
                )
                self._object = None

        return self._object

    def _set_object(self, obj):
        self._object = obj

    object = property(_get_object, _set_object)

    def _get_model(self):
        if self._model is None:
            try:
                self._model = haystack_get_model(self.app_label, self.model_name)
            except LookupError:
                pass

        return self._model

    def _set_model(self, obj):
        self._model = obj



## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 6 from django-import-export

django-import-export (documentation and PyPI page) is a Django code library for importing and exporting data from the Django Admin. The tool supports many export and import formats such as CSV, JSON and YAML. django-import-export is open source under the BSD 2-Clause "Simplified" License.

django-import-export / import_export / fields.py

# fields.py
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.db.models.fields import NOT_PROVIDED
from django.db.models.manager import Manager

from . import widgets


class Field:
    empty_values = [None, '']

    def __init__(self, attribute=None, column_name=None, widget=None,
                 default=NOT_PROVIDED, readonly=False, saves_null_values=True):
        self.attribute = attribute
        self.default = default
        self.column_name = column_name
        if not widget:
            widget = widgets.Widget()
        self.widget = widget
        self.readonly = readonly
        self.saves_null_values = saves_null_values

    def __repr__(self):
        path = '%s.%s' % (self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__)
        column_name = getattr(self, 'column_name', None)
        if column_name is not None:


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


        try:
            value = data[self.column_name]
        except KeyError:
            raise KeyError("Column '%s' not found in dataset. Available "
                           "columns are: %s" % (self.column_name, list(data)))

        value = self.widget.clean(value, row=data)

        if value in self.empty_values and self.default != NOT_PROVIDED:
            if callable(self.default):
                return self.default()
            return self.default

        return value

    def get_value(self, obj):
        if self.attribute is None:
            return None

        attrs = self.attribute.split('__')
        value = obj

        for attr in attrs:
            try:
                value = getattr(value, attr, None)
            except (ValueError, ObjectDoesNotExist):
                return None
            if value is None:
                return None

        if callable(value) and not isinstance(value, Manager):
            value = value()
        return value

    def save(self, obj, data, is_m2m=False):
        if not self.readonly:
            attrs = self.attribute.split('__')
            for attr in attrs[:-1]:
                obj = getattr(obj, attr, None)
            cleaned = self.clean(data)
            if cleaned is not None or self.saves_null_values:
                if not is_m2m:
                    setattr(obj, attrs[-1], cleaned)
                else:
                    getattr(obj, attrs[-1]).set(cleaned)

    def export(self, obj):
        value = self.get_value(obj)
        if value is None:
            return ""


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 7 from django-model-utils

django-model-utils (project documentation and PyPI package information) provides useful mixins and utilities for working with Django ORM models in your projects.

The django-model-utils project is open sourced under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License.

django-model-utils / model_utils / managers.py

# managers.py
import django
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.db import connection
from django.db import models
from django.db.models.constants import LOOKUP_SEP
from django.db.models.fields.related import OneToOneField, OneToOneRel
from django.db.models.query import ModelIterable
from django.db.models.query import QuerySet
from django.db.models.sql.datastructures import Join


class InheritanceIterable(ModelIterable):
    def __iter__(self):
        queryset = self.queryset
        iter = ModelIterable(queryset)
        if getattr(queryset, 'subclasses', False):
            extras = tuple(queryset.query.extra.keys())
            subclasses = sorted(queryset.subclasses, key=len, reverse=True)
            for obj in iter:
                sub_obj = None
                for s in subclasses:
                    sub_obj = queryset._get_sub_obj_recurse(obj, s)
                    if sub_obj:
                        break
                if not sub_obj:
                    sub_obj = obj


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


    def _get_ancestors_path(self, model, levels=None):
        if not issubclass(model, self.model):
            raise ValueError(
                "{!r} is not a subclass of {!r}".format(model, self.model))

        ancestry = []
        parent_link = model._meta.get_ancestor_link(self.model)
        if levels:
            levels -= 1
        while parent_link is not None:
            related = parent_link.remote_field
            ancestry.insert(0, related.get_accessor_name())
            if levels or levels is None:
                parent_model = related.model
                parent_link = parent_model._meta.get_ancestor_link(
                    self.model)
            else:
                parent_link = None
        return LOOKUP_SEP.join(ancestry)

    def _get_sub_obj_recurse(self, obj, s):
        rel, _, s = s.partition(LOOKUP_SEP)

        try:
            node = getattr(obj, rel)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            return None
        if s:
            child = self._get_sub_obj_recurse(node, s)
            return child
        else:
            return node

    def get_subclass(self, *args, **kwargs):
        return self.select_subclasses().get(*args, **kwargs)


class InheritanceQuerySet(InheritanceQuerySetMixin, QuerySet):
    def instance_of(self, *models):



        where_queries = []
        for model in models:
            where_queries.append('(' + ' AND '.join([
                '"{}"."{}" IS NOT NULL'.format(
                    model._meta.db_table,
                    field.attname,  # Should this be something else?
                ) for field in model._meta.parents.values()
            ]) + ')')


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 8 from django-oauth-toolkit

django-oauth-toolkit (project website and PyPI package information) is a code library for adding and handling OAuth2 flows within your Django web application and API.

The django-oauth-toolkit project is open sourced under the FreeBSD license and it is maintained by the developer community group Jazzband.

django-oauth-toolkit / oauth2_provider / oauth2_validators.py

# oauth2_validators.py
import base64
import binascii
import http.client
import logging
from collections import OrderedDict
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from urllib.parse import unquote_plus

import requests
from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, get_user_model
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.db import transaction
from django.db.models import Q
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.timezone import make_aware
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
from oauthlib.oauth2 import RequestValidator

from .exceptions import FatalClientError
from .models import (
    AbstractApplication, get_access_token_model,
    get_application_model, get_grant_model, get_refresh_token_model
)
from .scopes import get_scopes_backend
from .settings import oauth2_settings


log = logging.getLogger("oauth2_provider")

GRANT_TYPE_MAPPING = {
    "authorization_code": (AbstractApplication.GRANT_AUTHORIZATION_CODE, ),
    "password": (AbstractApplication.GRANT_PASSWORD, ),
    "client_credentials": (AbstractApplication.GRANT_CLIENT_CREDENTIALS, ),
    "refresh_token": (
        AbstractApplication.GRANT_AUTHORIZATION_CODE,


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


            scope=" ".join(request.scopes),
            code_challenge=request.code_challenge or "",
            code_challenge_method=request.code_challenge_method or ""
        )

    def _create_refresh_token(self, request, refresh_token_code, access_token):
        return RefreshToken.objects.create(
            user=request.user,
            token=refresh_token_code,
            application=request.client,
            access_token=access_token
        )

    def revoke_token(self, token, token_type_hint, request, *args, **kwargs):
        if token_type_hint not in ["access_token", "refresh_token"]:
            token_type_hint = None

        token_types = {
            "access_token": AccessToken,
            "refresh_token": RefreshToken,
        }

        token_type = token_types.get(token_type_hint, AccessToken)
        try:
            token_type.objects.get(token=token).revoke()
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            for other_type in [_t for _t in token_types.values() if _t != token_type]:
                list(map(lambda t: t.revoke(), other_type.objects.filter(token=token)))

    def validate_user(self, username, password, client, request, *args, **kwargs):
        u = authenticate(username=username, password=password)
        if u is not None and u.is_active:
            request.user = u
            return True
        return False

    def get_original_scopes(self, refresh_token, request, *args, **kwargs):
        rt = request.refresh_token_instance
        if not rt.access_token_id:
            return AccessToken.objects.get(source_refresh_token_id=rt.id).scope

        return rt.access_token.scope

    def validate_refresh_token(self, refresh_token, client, request, *args, **kwargs):

        null_or_recent = Q(revoked__isnull=True) | Q(
            revoked__gt=timezone.now() - timedelta(
                seconds=oauth2_settings.REFRESH_TOKEN_GRACE_PERIOD_SECONDS
            )
        )


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

Example 9 from django-rest-framework

Django REST Framework (project homepage and documentation, PyPI package information and more resources on Full Stack Python), often abbreviated as "DRF", is a popular Django extension for building web APIs. The project has fantastic documentation and a wonderful quickstart that serve as examples of how to make it easier for newcomers to get started.

The project is open sourced under the Encode OSS Ltd. license.

django-rest-framework / rest_framework / fields.py

# fields.py
import copy
import datetime
import decimal
import functools
import inspect
import re
import uuid
import warnings
from collections import OrderedDict
from collections.abc import Mapping

from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import ObjectDoesNotExist
from django.core.exceptions import ValidationError as DjangoValidationError
from django.core.validators import (
    EmailValidator, MaxLengthValidator, MaxValueValidator, MinLengthValidator,
    MinValueValidator, ProhibitNullCharactersValidator, RegexValidator,
    URLValidator, ip_address_validators
)
from django.forms import FilePathField as DjangoFilePathField
from django.forms import ImageField as DjangoImageField
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.dateparse import (
    parse_date, parse_datetime, parse_duration, parse_time
)
from django.utils.duration import duration_string
from django.utils.encoding import is_protected_type, smart_str
from django.utils.formats import localize_input, sanitize_separators
from django.utils.ipv6 import clean_ipv6_address
from django.utils.timezone import utc
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
from pytz.exceptions import InvalidTimeError

from rest_framework import (
    ISO_8601, RemovedInDRF313Warning, RemovedInDRF314Warning
)
from rest_framework.exceptions import ErrorDetail, ValidationError


## ... source file abbreviated to get to ObjectDoesNotExist examples ...


    if inspect.isbuiltin(obj):
        raise BuiltinSignatureError(
            'Built-in function signatures are not inspectable. '
            'Wrap the function call in a simple, pure Python function.')

    if not (inspect.isfunction(obj) or inspect.ismethod(obj) or isinstance(obj, functools.partial)):
        return False

    sig = inspect.signature(obj)
    params = sig.parameters.values()
    return all(
        param.kind == param.VAR_POSITIONAL or
        param.kind == param.VAR_KEYWORD or
        param.default != param.empty
        for param in params
    )


def get_attribute(instance, attrs):
    for attr in attrs:
        try:
            if isinstance(instance, Mapping):
                instance = instance[attr]
            else:
                instance = getattr(instance, attr)
        except ObjectDoesNotExist:
            return None
        if is_simple_callable(instance):
            try:
                instance = instance()
            except (AttributeError, KeyError) as exc:
                raise ValueError('Exception raised in callable attribute "{}"; original exception was: {}'.format(attr, exc))

    return instance


def set_value(dictionary, keys, value):
    if not keys:
        dictionary.update(value)
        return

    for key in keys[:-1]:
        if key not in dictionary:
            dictionary[key] = {}
        dictionary = dictionary[key]

    dictionary[keys[-1]] = value


def to_choices_dict(choices):


## ... source file continues with no further ObjectDoesNotExist examples...

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1. Introduction 2. Development Environments 3. Data 4. Web Development 5. Deployment 6. DevOps Changelog What Full Stack Means About the Author Future Directions Page Statuses Django ExtensionsDjango Example Codedjango.apps.config AppConfigdjango.conf settingsdjango.conf.urls.urldjango.contrib.admindjango.contrib.admin.filters SimpleListFilterdjango.contrib.admin.sites registerdjango.contrib.admin helpersdjango.contrib.admin.helpers ActionFormdjango.contrib.admin.helpers AdminFormdjango.contrib.admin.options IS_POPUP_VARdjango.contrib.admin.options IncorrectLookupParametersdjango.contrib.admin.options ModelAdmindjango.contrib.admin.options csrf_protect_mdjango.contrib.admin.sites NotRegistereddjango.contrib.admin.sites sitedjango.contrib.staticfiles findersdjango.contrib.staticfiles storagedjango.contrib.staticfiles.finders BaseFinderdjango.contrib.staticfiles.finders BaseStorageFinderdjango.contrib.staticfiles.finders finddjango.contrib.staticfiles.finders get_findersdjango.contrib.staticfiles.handlers StaticFilesHandlerdjango.contrib.staticfiles.storage CachedStaticFilesStoragedjango.contrib.staticfiles.storage HashedFilesMixindjango.contrib.staticfiles.storage ManifestStaticFilesStoragedjango.contrib.staticfiles.storage StaticFilesStoragedjango.contrib.staticfiles.storage staticfiles_storagedjango.contrib.staticfiles.utils matches_patternsdjango.core cachedjango.core checksdjango.core exceptionsdjango.core maildjango.core managementdjango.core serializersdjango.core signalsdjango.core signingdjango.core validatorsdjango.core.exceptions DisallowedRedirectdjango.core.exceptions FieldDoesNotExistdjango.core.exceptions FieldErrordjango.core.exceptions MiddlewareNotUseddjango.core.exceptions NON_FIELD_ERRORSdjango.core.exceptions ObjectDoesNotExistdjango.core.exceptions PermissionDenieddjango.core.exceptions SuspiciousFileOperationdjango.core.exceptions SuspiciousMultipartFormdjango.core.exceptions ValidationErrordjango.db DEFAULT_DB_ALIASdjango.db DataErrordjango.db DatabaseErrordjango.db IntegrityErrordjango.db ProgrammingErrordjango.db connectiondjango.db connectionsdjango.db migrationsdjango.db modelsdjango.db routerdjango.db transactiondjango.db.backends utilsdjango.db.migrations RunPythondjango.db.migrations.autodetector MigrationAutodetectordjango.db.migrations.exceptions IrreversibleErrordjango.db.migrations.executor MigrationExecutordjango.db.migrations.loader MIGRATIONS_MODULE_NAMEdjango.db.migrations.loader MigrationLoaderdjango.db.migrations.operations.base Operationdjango.db.migrations.state ProjectStatedjango.db.models.query BaseIterabledjango.db.models.query EmptyQuerySetdjango.db.models.query ModelIterabledjango.db.models.query Prefetchdjango.db.models.query Qdjango.db.models.query QuerySetdjango.db.models.query prefetch_related_objectsdjango.db.models.query_utils DeferredAttributedjango.db.models.query_utils PathInfodjango.db.models.query_utils Qdjango.db.models.signals post_deletedjango.db.models.signals post_savedjango.db.models.signals pre_deletedjango.db.models.signals pre_savedjango.forms BaseFormdjango.forms CheckboxInputdjango.forms CheckboxSelectMultipledjango.forms DateInputdjango.forms Fielddjango.forms FileInputdjango.forms FilePathFielddjango.forms Formdjango.forms HiddenInputdjango.forms ImageFielddjango.forms Mediadjango.forms MediaDefiningClassdjango.forms ModelChoiceFielddjango.forms ModelFormdjango.forms ModelMultipleChoiceFielddjango.forms MultipleChoiceFielddjango.forms Selectdjango.forms SelectMultipledjango.forms ValidationErrordjango.shortcuts get_list_or_404django.shortcuts get_object_or_404django.shortcuts redirectdjango.shortcuts renderdjango.shortcuts resolve_urldjango.template.base Contextdjango.template.base FilterExpressiondjango.template.base Nodedjango.template.base NodeListdjango.template.base Parserdjango.template.base Templatedjango.template.base TemplateSyntaxErrordjango.template.base TextNodedjango.template.base Tokendjango.template.base TokenTypedjango.template.base VariableDoesNotExistdjango.template.base VariableNodedjango.template.base token_kwargsdjango.urls URLPatterndjango.urls URLResolverdjango.urls clear_url_cachesdjango.urls get_callabledjango.urls get_resolverdjango.urls get_script_prefixdjango.urls includedjango.urls re_pathdjango.urls register_converterdjango.urls resolvedjango.urls reversedjango.utils dateformatdjango.utils dateparsedjango.utils datetime_safedjango.utils formatsdjango.utils module_loadingdjango.utils termcolorsdjango.utils translationdjango.utils treedjango.utils.cache add_never_cache_headersdjango.utils.cache cc_delim_redjango.utils.cache patch_cache_controldjango.utils.cache patch_response_headersdjango.utils.cache patch_vary_headersdjango.utils.crypto constant_time_comparedjango.utils.crypto get_random_stringdjango.utils.datastructures MultiValueDictdjango.utils.dateparse parse_datetimedjango.utils.dateparse parse_durationdjango.utils.dates MONTHSdjango.utils.datetime_safe datetimedjango.utils.decorators method_decoratordjango.utils.deprecation MiddlewareMixindjango.utils.deprecation RenameMethodsBasedjango.utils.duration duration_stringdjango.utils.encoding DjangoUnicodeDecodeErrordjango.utils.encoding filepath_to_uridjango.utils.encoding force_bytesdjango.utils.encoding force_strdjango.utils.encoding force_textdjango.utils.encoding iri_to_uridjango.utils.encoding is_protected_typedjango.utils.encoding smart_bytesdjango.utils.encoding smart_strdjango.utils.encoding smart_textdjango.utils.encoding uri_to_iridjango.utils.formats get_formatdjango.utils.formats localize_inputdjango.utils.formats sanitize_separatorsdjango.utils.functional LazyObjectdjango.utils.functional Promisedjango.utils.functional SimpleLazyObjectdjango.utils.functional keep_lazydjango.utils.functional lazydjango.utils.functional total_orderingdjango.utils.functional wrapsdjango.utils.html conditional_escapedjango.utils.html escapedjango.utils.html escapejsdjango.utils.html format_html_joindjango.utils.html mark_safedjango.utils.html smart_urlquotedjango.utils.html strip_tagsdjango.utils.http base36_to_intdjango.utils.http http_datedjango.utils.http int_to_base36django.utils.http is_safe_urldjango.utils.http unquotedjango.utils.http url_has_allowed_host_and_schemedjango.utils.http urlencodedjango.utils.http urlquotedjango.utils.http urlunquotedjango.utils.ipv6 clean_ipv6_addressdjango.utils.itercompat is_iterabledjango.utils.module_loading autodiscover_modulesdjango.utils.module_loading import_stringdjango.utils.module_loading module_has_submoduledjango.utils.numberformat formatdjango.utils.safestring SafeDatadjango.utils.safestring SafeTextdjango.utils.safestring mark_safedjango.utils.termcolors colorizedjango.utils.text Truncatordjango.utils.text capfirstdjango.utils.text format_lazydjango.utils.text get_text_listdjango.utils.text get_valid_filenamedjango.utils.text slugifydjango.utils.timezone get_current_timezonedjango.utils.timezone make_awaredjango.utils.timezone nowdjango.utils.timezone timedeltadjango.utils.translation LANGUAGE_SESSION_KEYdjango.utils.translation activatedjango.utils.translation deactivate_alldjango.utils.translation get_languagedjango.utils.translation get_language_from_requestdjango.utils.translation gettextdjango.utils.translation gettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ngettextdjango.utils.translation overridedjango.utils.translation pgettextdjango.utils.translation pgettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ugettextdjango.utils.translation ugettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ungettextdjango.utils.translation ungettext_lazydjango.utils.version get_complete_versiondjango.views csrfdjango.views.debug get_default_exception_reporter_filterdjango.views.decorators.csrf csrf_exemptdjango.views.decorators.debug sensitive_post_parametersdjango.views.decorators.http require_GETdjango.views.decorators.http require_POSTdjango.views.generic CreateViewdjango.views.generic DeleteViewdjango.views.generic DetailViewdjango.views.generic FormViewdjango.views.generic ListViewdjango.views.generic RedirectViewdjango.views.generic TemplateViewdjango.views.generic UpdateViewdjango.views.generic Viewdjango.views.generic.base RedirectViewdjango.views.generic.base TemplateResponseMixindjango.views.generic.base TemplateViewdjango.views.generic.base Viewdjango.views.generic.detail SingleObjectMixindjango.views.generic.edit CreateViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeleteViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeletionMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormViewdjango.views.generic.list ListViewdjango.views.generic.list MultipleObjectMixindjango.views.i18n JavaScriptCatalogdjango.views.static servedjango.views.static was_modified_sincedjango.contrib.auth.decorators login_requireddjango.contrib.auth get_user_modeldjango.contrib.auth.hashers make_passworddjango.core.exceptions ImproperlyConfigureddjango.core.mail.messages EmailMessagedjango.core.mail.send_maildjango.core.management.base BaseCommanddjango.db.models AutoFielddjango.db.models BooleanFielddjango.db.models CharFielddjango.db.models DateFielddjango.db.models DateTimeFielddjango.db.models FileFielddjango.db.models ForeignKeydjango.db.models GenericIPAddressFielddjango.db.models ImageFielddjango.db.models IntegerFielddjango.db.models Modeldjango.db.models PositiveIntegerFielddjango.db.models PositiveSmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models.signaldjango.db.models SlugFielddjango.db.models SmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models TextFielddjango.db OperationalErrordjango.dispatch Signaldjango.formsdjango.forms BooleanFielddjango.forms CharFielddjango.forms ChoiceFielddjango.forms DateFielddjango.forms DateTimeFielddjango.forms EmailFielddjango.forms IntegerFielddjango.forms TypedChoiceFielddjango.http Http404django.http HttpResponsedjango.http HttpResponseBadRequestdjango.http HttpResponseForbiddendjango.http HttpResponseNotModifieddjango.http HttpResponsePermanentRedirectdjango.http HttpResponseRedirectdjango.template.response SimpleTemplateResponsedjango.template.response TemplateResponsedjango.urls.pathdjango.urls reverse_lazydjango.urls.exceptions NoReverseMatchdjango.urls.exceptions Resolver404django.utils.html format_htmldjango.utils.timezone ...or view the full table of contents.

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