Django is a widely-used Python web application framework with a "batteries-included" philosophy. The principle behind batteries-included is that the common functionality for building web applications should come with the framework instead of as separate libraries.

Official Django logo. Trademark Django Software Foundation.

For example, authentication, URL routing, a template engine, an object-relational mapper (ORM), and database schema migrations are all included with the Django framework. Compare that included functionality to the Flask framework which requires a separate library such as Flask-Login to perform user authentication.

The batteries-included and extensibility philosophies are simply two different ways to tackle framework building. Neither philosophy is inherently better than the other one.

Django is an implementation of the web frameworks concept. Learn how these pieces fit together in the web development chapter or view the table of contents for all topics.

Why is Django a good web framework choice?

The Django project's stability, performance and community have grown tremendously over the past decade since the framework's creation. Detailed tutorials and good practices are readily available on the web and in books. The framework continues to add significant new functionality such as database migrations with each release.

I highly recommend the Django framework as a starting place for new Python web developers because the official documentation and tutorials are some of the best anywhere in software development. Many cities also have Django-specific groups such as Django District, Django Boston and San Francisco Django so new developers can get help when they are stuck.

Django books and tutorials

There are a slew of free or low cost resources out there for Django. Make sure to check the version numbers used in each post you read because Django was released over 10 years ago and has had a huge number of updates since then. These resources are geared towards beginners. If you are already experienced with Django you should take a look at the next section of resources for more advanced tutorials.

Django videos

Are you looking for Django videos in addition to articles? There is a special section for Django and web development on the best Python videos page.

Intermediate and advanced Django topics

These books and tutorials assume that you know the basics of building Django and want to go further to become much more knowledgeable about the framework.

Django migrations

  • Paul Hallett wrote a detailed Django 1.7 app upgrade guide on the Twilio blog from his experience working with the django-twilio package.

  • Real Python's migrations primer explores the difference between South's migrations and the built-in Django 1.7 migrations as well as how you use them.

  • Andrew Pinkham's "Upgrading to Django 1.7" series is great learning material for understanding what's changed in this major release and how to adapt your Django project. Part 1, part 2 and part 3 and part 4 are now all available to read.

  • Django migrations without downtimes shows one potential way of performing on-line schema migrations with Django.

  • How to Extend Django User Model presents four main ways to expand upon the built-in User model that is packaged with Django. This scenario is very common for all but the simplest Django projects.

  • Creating a Custom User Model in Django looks at how to create a custom User model in Django so that an email address can be used as the primary user identifier instead of a username for authentication.

Django Channels

Channels are a new mechanism in Django 1.9 provided as a standalone app. They may be incorporated into the core framework in 2.0+. Channels provide "real-time" full-duplex communication between the browser and the server based on WebSockets.

Django testing

Django with JavaScript MVC frameworks

There are resources for JavaScript MVC frameworks such as Angular, React and Vue.js on their respective pages.

Django ORM tutorials

Django comes with its own custom object-relational mapper (ORM) typically referred to as "the Django ORM". Learn more about the Django ORM on the its own page and more broadly about ORMs on the Python object-relational mappers page.

Static and media files

Deploying and handling static and media files can be confusing for new Django developers. These resources along with the static content page are useful for figuring out how to handle these files properly.

Django project templates

Project templates, not to be confused with a template engine, generate boilerplate code for a base Django project plus optional libraries that are often used when developing web applications.

Open source Django example projects

Reading open source code can be useful when you are trying to figure out how to build your own projects. This is a short list of some real-world example applications, and many more can be found on the Django example projects and code page.

  • Openduty is a website status checking and alert system similar to PagerDuty.

  • Courtside is a pick up sports web application written and maintained by the author of PyCoder's Weekly.

  • These two Django Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system web application repositories part 1 and part 2 show you how to build a really cool Django application. There's also an accompanying blog post with detailed explanations of each step.

  • Taiga is a project management tool built with Django as the backend and AngularJS as the front end.

  • Chowist is a web application that replicates core features of Yelp and adds a couple more bells and whistles.

Open source code to learn Django

There are many open source projects that rely on Django. One of the best ways to learn how to use this framework is to read how other projects use it in real-world code. This section lists these code examples by class and method in Django's code base.

Django: Extensions, Plug-ins and Related Libraries & Example Projects and Code

django.apps.config AppConfig

django.conf settings, urls.url

django.contrib.admin filters.SimpleListFilter,

django.contrib.admin.helpers ActionForm, AdminForm

django.contrib.admin.options IS_POPUP_VAR, IncorrectLookupParameters, ModelAdmin, csrf_protect_m

django.contrib.admin.sites NotRegistered, register, site

django.contrib.auth get_user_model, decorators login_required, hashers make_password

django.contrib.staticfiles finders, .finders BaseFinder, .finders BaseStorageFinder, .finders find, .finders get_finders .handlers StaticFilesHandler storage .storage CachedStaticFilesStorage, .storage HashedFilesMixin, .storage ManifestStaticFilesStorage, .storage StaticFilesStorage, .storage staticfiles_storage .utils matches_patterns

django.core cache, checks, exceptions, mail, mail.send_mail, mail.messages EmailMessage, management, management.base BaseCommand, serializers, signals, signing, validators

django.core.exceptions DisallowedRedirect, FieldDoesNotExist, FieldError, ImproperlyConfigured, MiddlewareNotUsed, NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ObjectDoesNotExist, PermissionDenied, SuspiciousFileOperation, SuspiciousMultipartForm, ValidationError

django.db DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS, DataError, DatabaseError, IntegrityError, OperationalError, ProgrammingError, connection, connections, migrations, router, transaction .backends utils

django.db.migrations RunPython, .autodetector MigrationAutodetector, .exceptions IrreversibleError, .executor MigrationExecutor, .loader MIGRATIONS_MODULE_NAME, .loader MigrationLoader, .operations.base Operation, .state ProjectState

django.db.models AutoField, BooleanField, CharField, DateField, DateTimeField, FileField, ForeignKey, GenericIPAddressField, ImageField, IntegerField, Model, PositiveIntegerField, PositiveSmallIntegerField, signal, SlugField, SmallIntegerField, TextField

django.db.models.query BaseIterable, EmptyQuerySet, ModelIterable, Prefetch, Q, QuerySet, prefetch_related_objects

django.db.models.query_utils DeferredAttribute, PathInfo, Q

django.db.models.signals post_delete, post_save, pre_delete, pre_save

django.dispatch.dispatcher Signal

django.forms BaseForm, BooleanField, CharField, CheckboxInput, CheckboxSelectMultiple, ChoiceField, DateField, DateInput, DateTimeField, EmailField, Field, FileInput, FilePathField, Form, HiddenInput, ImageField, IntegerField, Media, MediaDefiningClass, ModelChoiceField, ModelForm, ModelMultipleChoiceField, MultipleChoiceField, Select, SelectMultiple, TypedChoiceField, ValidationError

django.http HttpResponse, HttpResponseBadRequest, HttpResponseForbidden, HttpResponseNotModified, Http404, HttpResponsePermanentRedirect, HttpResponseRedirect

django.shortcuts get_list_or_404, get_object_or_404, redirect, render, resolve_url

django.template.base Context, FilterExpression, Node, NodeList, Parser, Template, TemplateSyntaxError, TextNode, Token, TokenType, VariableDoesNotExist, VariableNode, token_kwargs

django.template.context Context

django.template.defaultfilters escape, filesizeformat, safe, slugify, striptags, title, truncatechars

django.template.loader get_template, render_to_string, select_template

django.template.loader_tags BlockNode, ExtendsNode, IncludeNode

django.template.loaders.filesystem Loader

django.template.response SimpleTemplateResponse, TemplateResponse

django.urls URLPattern, URLResolver, clear_url_caches, get_callable, get_resolver, get_script_prefix, include, path, re_path, register_converter, resolve, reverse, reverse_lazy

django.urls.exceptions NoReverseMatch, Resolver404

django.utils dateformat, dateparse, datetime_safe, formats, module_loading, termcolors, timezone, translation, tree

django.utils.cache add_never_cache_headers, cc_delim_re, patch_cache_control, patch_response_headers, patch_vary_headers

django.utils.crypto constant_time_compare, get_random_string

django.utils.datastructures MultiValueDict

django.utils.dateparse parse_datetime, parse_duration

django.utils.dates MONTHS

django.utils.datetime_safe datetime

django.utils.decorators method_decorator

django.utils.deprecation MiddlewareMixin, RenameMethodsBase

django.utils.duration duration_string

django.utils.encoding DjangoUnicodeDecodeError, filepath_to_uri, force_bytes, force_str, force_text, iri_to_uri, is_protected_type, smart_bytes, smart_str, smart_text, uri_to_iri

django.utils.formats get_format, localize_input, sanitize_separators

django.utils.functional LazyObject, Promise, SimpleLazyObject, keep_lazy, lazy, total_ordering, wraps

django.utils.html conditional_escape, escape, escapejs, format_html, format_html_join, mark_safe, smart_urlquote, strip_tags

django.utils.http base36_to_int, http_date, int_to_base36, is_safe_url, unquote, url_has_allowed_host_and_scheme, urlencode, urlquote, urlunquote

django.utils.ipv6 clean_ipv6_address

django.utils.itercompat is_iterable

django.utils.module_loading autodiscover_modules, import_string, module_has_submodule

django.utils.numberformat format

django.utils.safestring SafeData, SafeText, mark_safe

django.utils.termcolors colorize

django.utils.text Truncator, capfirst, format_lazy, get_text_list, get_valid_filename, slugify

django.utils.timezone get_current_timezone, make_aware, now, timedelta

django.utils.translation LANGUAGE_SESSION_KEY, activate, deactivate_all, get_language, get_language_from_request, gettext, gettext_lazy, ngettext, override, pgettext, pgettext_lazy, ugettext, ugettext_lazy, ungettext, ungettext_lazy

django.utils.version get_complete_version

django.views csrf .debug get_default_exception_reporter_filter .decorators.csrf csrf_exempt .decorators.debug sensitive_post_parameters .decorators.http require_GET, .decorators.http require_POST

django.views.generic CreateView, DeleteView, DetailView, FormView, ListView, RedirectView, TemplateView, UpdateView, View

django.views.generic.base RedirectView, TemplateResponseMixin, TemplateView, View

django.views.generic.detail SingleObjectMixin

django.views.generic.edit CreateView, DeleteView, DeletionMixin, FormMixin, FormView

django.views.generic.list ListView, MultipleObjectMixin

django.views.i18n JavaScriptCatalog

django.views.static serve, was_modified_since

What do you need to learn next for your Django app?

My app runs but looks awful. How do I style the user interface?

How do I integrate existing web APIs into my application?

I've built a Python web app, now how do I deploy it?

Matt Makai 2012-2022