django.db transaction Example Code

transaction is a callable within the django.db module of the Django project.

Example 1 from django-allauth

django-allauth (project website) is a Django library for easily adding local and social authentication flows to Django projects. It is open source under the MIT License.

django-allauth / allauth / account / models.py

# models.py
from __future__ import unicode_literals

import datetime

from django.core import signing
from django.db import models, transaction
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.crypto import get_random_string
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _

from .. import app_settings as allauth_app_settings
from . import app_settings, signals
from .adapter import get_adapter
from .managers import EmailAddressManager, EmailConfirmationManager
from .utils import user_email


class EmailAddress(models.Model):

    user = models.ForeignKey(allauth_app_settings.USER_MODEL,
                             verbose_name=_('user'),
                             on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    email = models.EmailField(unique=app_settings.UNIQUE_EMAIL,
                              max_length=app_settings.EMAIL_MAX_LENGTH,
                              verbose_name=_('e-mail address'))
    verified = models.BooleanField(verbose_name=_('verified'), default=False)
    primary = models.BooleanField(verbose_name=_('primary'), default=False)

    objects = EmailAddressManager()



## ... source file abbreviated to get to transaction examples ...


    def __str__(self):
        return self.email

    def set_as_primary(self, conditional=False):
        old_primary = EmailAddress.objects.get_primary(self.user)
        if old_primary:
            if conditional:
                return False
            old_primary.primary = False
            old_primary.save()
        self.primary = True
        self.save()
        user_email(self.user, self.email)
        self.user.save()
        return True

    def send_confirmation(self, request=None, signup=False):
        if app_settings.EMAIL_CONFIRMATION_HMAC:
            confirmation = EmailConfirmationHMAC(self)
        else:
            confirmation = EmailConfirmation.create(self)
        confirmation.send(request, signup=signup)
        return confirmation

    def change(self, request, new_email, confirm=True):
        with transaction.atomic():
            user_email(self.user, new_email)
            self.user.save()
            self.email = new_email
            self.verified = False
            self.save()
            if confirm:
                self.send_confirmation(request)


class EmailConfirmation(models.Model):

    email_address = models.ForeignKey(EmailAddress,
                                      verbose_name=_('e-mail address'),
                                      on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    created = models.DateTimeField(verbose_name=_('created'),
                                   default=timezone.now)
    sent = models.DateTimeField(verbose_name=_('sent'), null=True)
    key = models.CharField(verbose_name=_('key'), max_length=64, unique=True)

    objects = EmailConfirmationManager()

    class Meta:
        verbose_name = _("email confirmation")
        verbose_name_plural = _("email confirmations")


## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 2 from django-import-export

django-import-export (documentation and PyPI page) is a Django code library for importing and exporting data from the Django Admin. The tool supports many export and import formats such as CSV, JSON and YAML. django-import-export is open source under the BSD 2-Clause "Simplified" License.

django-import-export / import_export / utils.py

# utils.py
from django.db import transaction


class atomic_if_using_transaction:
    def __init__(self, using_transactions):
        self.using_transactions = using_transactions
        if using_transactions:
            self.context_manager = transaction.atomic()

    def __enter__(self):
        if self.using_transactions:
            self.context_manager.__enter__()

    def __exit__(self, *args):
        if self.using_transactions:
            self.context_manager.__exit__(*args)



## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 3 from django-model-utils

django-model-utils (project documentation and PyPI package information) provides useful mixins and utilities for working with Django ORM models in your projects.

The django-model-utils project is open sourced under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License.

django-model-utils / model_utils / models.py

# models.py
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.db import models, transaction, router
from django.db.models.signals import post_save, pre_save
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _

from model_utils.fields import (
    AutoCreatedField,
    AutoLastModifiedField,
    StatusField,
    MonitorField,
    UUIDField,
)
from model_utils.managers import (
    QueryManager,
    SoftDeletableManager,
)

from django.db.models.functions import Now
now = Now()


class TimeStampedModel(models.Model):
    created = AutoCreatedField(_('created'))
    modified = AutoLastModifiedField(_('modified'))

    def save(self, *args, **kwargs):


## ... source file abbreviated to get to transaction examples ...


class SaveSignalHandlingModel(models.Model):
    class Meta:
        abstract = True

    def save(self, signals_to_disable=None, *args, **kwargs):

        self.signals_to_disable = signals_to_disable or []

        super().save(*args, **kwargs)

    def save_base(self, raw=False, force_insert=False,
                  force_update=False, using=None, update_fields=None):
        using = using or router.db_for_write(self.__class__, instance=self)
        assert not (force_insert and (force_update or update_fields))
        assert update_fields is None or len(update_fields) > 0
        cls = origin = self.__class__

        if cls._meta.proxy:
            cls = cls._meta.concrete_model
        meta = cls._meta
        if not meta.auto_created and 'pre_save' not in self.signals_to_disable:
            pre_save.send(
                sender=origin, instance=self, raw=raw, using=using,
                update_fields=update_fields,
            )
        with transaction.atomic(using=using, savepoint=False):
            if not raw:
                self._save_parents(cls, using, update_fields)
            updated = self._save_table(raw, cls, force_insert, force_update, using, update_fields)

        self._state.db = using
        self._state.adding = False

        if not meta.auto_created and 'post_save' not in self.signals_to_disable:
            post_save.send(
                sender=origin, instance=self, created=(not updated),
                update_fields=update_fields, raw=raw, using=using,
            )

        self.signals_to_disable = []



## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 4 from django-oauth-toolkit

django-oauth-toolkit (project website and PyPI package information) is a code library for adding and handling OAuth2 flows within your Django web application and API.

The django-oauth-toolkit project is open sourced under the FreeBSD license and it is maintained by the developer community group Jazzband.

django-oauth-toolkit / oauth2_provider / models.py

# models.py
import logging
from datetime import timedelta
from urllib.parse import parse_qsl, urlparse

from django.apps import apps
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.db import models, transaction
from django.urls import reverse
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _

from .generators import generate_client_id, generate_client_secret
from .scopes import get_scopes_backend
from .settings import oauth2_settings
from .validators import RedirectURIValidator, WildcardSet


logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


class AbstractApplication(models.Model):
    CLIENT_CONFIDENTIAL = "confidential"
    CLIENT_PUBLIC = "public"
    CLIENT_TYPES = (
        (CLIENT_CONFIDENTIAL, _("Confidential")),
        (CLIENT_PUBLIC, _("Public")),
    )

    GRANT_AUTHORIZATION_CODE = "authorization-code"
    GRANT_IMPLICIT = "implicit"
    GRANT_PASSWORD = "password"


## ... source file abbreviated to get to transaction examples ...


    class Meta(AbstractAccessToken.Meta):
        swappable = "OAUTH2_PROVIDER_ACCESS_TOKEN_MODEL"


class AbstractRefreshToken(models.Model):
    id = models.BigAutoField(primary_key=True)
    user = models.ForeignKey(
        settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL, on_delete=models.CASCADE,
        related_name="%(app_label)s_%(class)s"
    )
    token = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    application = models.ForeignKey(
        oauth2_settings.APPLICATION_MODEL, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    access_token = models.OneToOneField(
        oauth2_settings.ACCESS_TOKEN_MODEL, on_delete=models.SET_NULL, blank=True, null=True,
        related_name="refresh_token"
    )

    created = models.DateTimeField(auto_now_add=True)
    updated = models.DateTimeField(auto_now=True)
    revoked = models.DateTimeField(null=True)

    def revoke(self):
        access_token_model = get_access_token_model()
        refresh_token_model = get_refresh_token_model()
        with transaction.atomic():
            self = refresh_token_model.objects.filter(
                pk=self.pk, revoked__isnull=True
            ).select_for_update().first()
            if not self:
                return

            try:
                access_token_model.objects.get(id=self.access_token_id).revoke()
            except access_token_model.DoesNotExist:
                pass
            self.access_token = None
            self.revoked = timezone.now()
            self.save()

    def __str__(self):
        return self.token

    class Meta:
        abstract = True
        unique_together = ("token", "revoked",)


class RefreshToken(AbstractRefreshToken):
    class Meta(AbstractRefreshToken.Meta):


## ... source file abbreviated to get to transaction examples ...



def get_access_token_model():
    return apps.get_model(oauth2_settings.ACCESS_TOKEN_MODEL)


def get_refresh_token_model():
    return apps.get_model(oauth2_settings.REFRESH_TOKEN_MODEL)


def clear_expired():
    now = timezone.now()
    refresh_expire_at = None
    access_token_model = get_access_token_model()
    refresh_token_model = get_refresh_token_model()
    grant_model = get_grant_model()
    REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS = oauth2_settings.REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS
    if REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS:
        if not isinstance(REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS, timedelta):
            try:
                REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS = timedelta(seconds=REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS)
            except TypeError:
                e = "REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS must be either a timedelta or seconds"
                raise ImproperlyConfigured(e)
        refresh_expire_at = now - REFRESH_TOKEN_EXPIRE_SECONDS

    with transaction.atomic():
        if refresh_expire_at:
            revoked = refresh_token_model.objects.filter(
                revoked__lt=refresh_expire_at,
            )
            expired = refresh_token_model.objects.filter(
                access_token__expires__lt=refresh_expire_at,
            )

            logger.info("%s Revoked refresh tokens to be deleted", revoked.count())
            logger.info("%s Expired refresh tokens to be deleted", expired.count())

            revoked.delete()
            expired.delete()
        else:
            logger.info("refresh_expire_at is %s. No refresh tokens deleted.",
                        refresh_expire_at)

        access_tokens = access_token_model.objects.filter(
            refresh_token__isnull=True,
            expires__lt=now
        )
        grants = grant_model.objects.filter(expires__lt=now)

        logger.info("%s Expired access tokens to be deleted", access_tokens.count())


## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 5 from django-rest-framework

Django REST Framework (project homepage and documentation, PyPI package information and more resources on Full Stack Python), often abbreviated as "DRF", is a popular Django extension for building web APIs. The project has fantastic documentation and a wonderful quickstart that serve as examples of how to make it easier for newcomers to get started.

The project is open sourced under the Encode OSS Ltd. license.

django-rest-framework / rest_framework / views.py

# views.py
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import PermissionDenied
from django.db import connection, models, transaction
from django.http import Http404
from django.http.response import HttpResponseBase
from django.utils.cache import cc_delim_re, patch_vary_headers
from django.utils.encoding import smart_str
from django.views.decorators.csrf import csrf_exempt
from django.views.generic import View

from rest_framework import exceptions, status
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.schemas import DefaultSchema
from rest_framework.settings import api_settings
from rest_framework.utils import formatting


def get_view_name(view):
    name = getattr(view, 'name', None)
    if name is not None:
        return name

    name = view.__class__.__name__
    name = formatting.remove_trailing_string(name, 'View')
    name = formatting.remove_trailing_string(name, 'ViewSet')
    name = formatting.camelcase_to_spaces(name)

    suffix = getattr(view, 'suffix', None)
    if suffix:
        name += ' ' + suffix

    return name


def get_view_description(view, html=False):
    description = getattr(view, 'description', None)
    if description is None:
        description = view.__class__.__doc__ or ''

    description = formatting.dedent(smart_str(description))
    if html:
        return formatting.markup_description(description)
    return description


def set_rollback():
    atomic_requests = connection.settings_dict.get('ATOMIC_REQUESTS', False)
    if atomic_requests and connection.in_atomic_block:
        transaction.set_rollback(True)


def exception_handler(exc, context):
    if isinstance(exc, Http404):
        exc = exceptions.NotFound()
    elif isinstance(exc, PermissionDenied):
        exc = exceptions.PermissionDenied()

    if isinstance(exc, exceptions.APIException):
        headers = {}
        if getattr(exc, 'auth_header', None):
            headers['WWW-Authenticate'] = exc.auth_header
        if getattr(exc, 'wait', None):
            headers['Retry-After'] = '%d' % exc.wait

        if isinstance(exc.detail, (list, dict)):
            data = exc.detail
        else:
            data = {'detail': exc.detail}

        set_rollback()
        return Response(data, status=exc.status_code, headers=headers)

    return None


## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 6 from django-taggit

django-taggit (PyPI page) provides a way to create, store, manage and use tags in a Django project. The code for django-taggit is open source and maintained by the collaborative developer community group Jazzband.

django-taggit / taggit / models.py

# models.py
from django.contrib.contenttypes.fields import GenericForeignKey
from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
from django.db import IntegrityError, models, router, transaction
from django.utils.text import slugify
from django.utils.translation import gettext, gettext_lazy as _

try:
    from unidecode import unidecode
except ImportError:

    def unidecode(tag):
        return tag


class TagBase(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(verbose_name=_("name"), unique=True, max_length=100)
    slug = models.SlugField(verbose_name=_("slug"), unique=True, max_length=100)

    def __str__(self):
        return self.name

    def __gt__(self, other):
        return self.name.lower() > other.name.lower()

    def __lt__(self, other):
        return self.name.lower() < other.name.lower()

    class Meta:
        abstract = True

    def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if self._state.adding and not self.slug:
            self.slug = self.slugify(self.name)
            using = kwargs.get("using") or router.db_for_write(
                type(self), instance=self
            )
            kwargs["using"] = using
            try:
                with transaction.atomic(using=using):
                    res = super().save(*args, **kwargs)
                return res
            except IntegrityError:
                pass
            slugs = set(
                type(self)
                ._default_manager.filter(slug__startswith=self.slug)
                .values_list("slug", flat=True)
            )
            i = 1
            while True:
                slug = self.slugify(self.name, i)
                if slug not in slugs:
                    self.slug = slug
                    return super().save(*args, **kwargs)
                i += 1
        else:
            return super().save(*args, **kwargs)

    def slugify(self, tag, i=None):
        slug = slugify(unidecode(tag))
        if i is not None:
            slug += "_%d" % i
        return slug


## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

Example 7 from wagtail

wagtail (project website) is a fantastic Django-based CMS with code that is open source under the BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License.

wagtail / wagtail / core / models.py

# models.py
import json
import logging
from collections import defaultdict
from io import StringIO
from urllib.parse import urlparse

from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth.models import Group, Permission
from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
from django.core import checks
from django.core.cache import cache
from django.core.exceptions import ValidationError
from django.core.handlers.base import BaseHandler
from django.core.handlers.wsgi import WSGIRequest
from django.db import models, transaction
from django.db.models import Case, Q, Value, When
from django.db.models.functions import Concat, Lower, Substr
from django.http import Http404
from django.http.request import split_domain_port
from django.template.response import TemplateResponse
from django.urls import NoReverseMatch, reverse
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.cache import patch_cache_control
from django.utils.functional import cached_property
from django.utils.text import capfirst, slugify
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
from modelcluster.models import (
    ClusterableModel, get_all_child_m2m_relations, get_all_child_relations)
from treebeard.mp_tree import MP_Node

from wagtail.core.query import PageQuerySet, TreeQuerySet
from wagtail.core.signals import page_published, page_unpublished, post_page_move, pre_page_move
from wagtail.core.sites import get_site_for_hostname
from wagtail.core.url_routing import RouteResult
from wagtail.core.utils import WAGTAIL_APPEND_SLASH, camelcase_to_underscore, resolve_model_string
from wagtail.search import index


logger = logging.getLogger('wagtail.core')


## ... source file abbreviated to get to transaction examples ...


        return self.revisions.exclude(approved_go_live_at__isnull=True).exists()

    def has_unpublished_subtree(self):
        return (not self.live) and (not self.get_descendants().filter(live=True).exists())

    def move(self, target, pos=None):
        parent_before = self.get_parent()
        if pos in ('first-child', 'last-child', 'sorted-child'):
            parent_after = target
        else:
            parent_after = target.get_parent()

        old_self = Page.objects.get(id=self.id)
        old_url_path = old_self.url_path
        new_url_path = old_self.set_url_path(parent=parent_after)

        pre_page_move.send(
            sender=self.specific_class or self.__class__,
            instance=self,
            parent_page_before=parent_before,
            parent_page_after=parent_after,
            url_path_before=old_url_path,
            url_path_after=new_url_path,
        )

        with transaction.atomic():
            super().move(target, pos=pos)

            new_self = Page.objects.get(id=self.id)
            new_self.url_path = new_url_path
            new_self.save()

            if old_url_path != new_url_path:
                new_self._update_descendant_url_paths(old_url_path, new_url_path)

        post_page_move.send(
            sender=self.specific_class or self.__class__,
            instance=new_self,
            parent_page_before=parent_before,
            parent_page_after=parent_after,
            url_path_before=old_url_path,
            url_path_after=new_url_path,
        )

        logger.info("Page moved: \"%s\" id=%d path=%s", self.title, self.id, new_url_path)

    def copy(self, recursive=False, to=None, update_attrs=None, copy_revisions=True, keep_live=True, user=None, process_child_object=None, exclude_fields=None):
        specific_self = self.specific
        default_exclude_fields = ['id', 'path', 'depth', 'numchild', 'url_path', 'path', 'index_entries']
        exclude_fields = default_exclude_fields + specific_self.exclude_fields_in_copy + (exclude_fields or [])


## ... source file continues with no further transaction examples...

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token_kwargsdjango.urls URLPatterndjango.urls URLResolverdjango.urls clear_url_cachesdjango.urls get_callabledjango.urls get_resolverdjango.urls get_script_prefixdjango.urls includedjango.urls re_pathdjango.urls register_converterdjango.urls resolvedjango.urls reversedjango.utils dateformatdjango.utils dateparsedjango.utils datetime_safedjango.utils formatsdjango.utils module_loadingdjango.utils termcolorsdjango.utils translationdjango.utils treedjango.utils.cache add_never_cache_headersdjango.utils.cache cc_delim_redjango.utils.cache patch_cache_controldjango.utils.cache patch_response_headersdjango.utils.cache patch_vary_headersdjango.utils.crypto constant_time_comparedjango.utils.crypto get_random_stringdjango.utils.datastructures MultiValueDictdjango.utils.dateparse parse_datetimedjango.utils.dateparse parse_durationdjango.utils.dates MONTHSdjango.utils.datetime_safe datetimedjango.utils.decorators method_decoratordjango.utils.deprecation MiddlewareMixindjango.utils.deprecation RenameMethodsBasedjango.utils.duration duration_stringdjango.utils.encoding DjangoUnicodeDecodeErrordjango.utils.encoding filepath_to_uridjango.utils.encoding force_bytesdjango.utils.encoding force_strdjango.utils.encoding force_textdjango.utils.encoding iri_to_uridjango.utils.encoding is_protected_typedjango.utils.encoding smart_bytesdjango.utils.encoding smart_strdjango.utils.encoding smart_textdjango.utils.encoding uri_to_iridjango.utils.formats get_formatdjango.utils.formats localize_inputdjango.utils.formats sanitize_separatorsdjango.utils.functional LazyObjectdjango.utils.functional Promisedjango.utils.functional SimpleLazyObjectdjango.utils.functional keep_lazydjango.utils.functional lazydjango.utils.functional total_orderingdjango.utils.functional wrapsdjango.utils.html conditional_escapedjango.utils.html escapedjango.utils.html escapejsdjango.utils.html format_html_joindjango.utils.html mark_safedjango.utils.html smart_urlquotedjango.utils.html strip_tagsdjango.utils.http base36_to_intdjango.utils.http http_datedjango.utils.http int_to_base36django.utils.http is_safe_urldjango.utils.http unquotedjango.utils.http url_has_allowed_host_and_schemedjango.utils.http urlencodedjango.utils.http urlquotedjango.utils.http urlunquotedjango.utils.ipv6 clean_ipv6_addressdjango.utils.itercompat is_iterabledjango.utils.module_loading autodiscover_modulesdjango.utils.module_loading import_stringdjango.utils.module_loading module_has_submoduledjango.utils.numberformat formatdjango.utils.safestring SafeDatadjango.utils.safestring SafeTextdjango.utils.safestring mark_safedjango.utils.termcolors colorizedjango.utils.text Truncatordjango.utils.text capfirstdjango.utils.text format_lazydjango.utils.text get_text_listdjango.utils.text get_valid_filenamedjango.utils.text slugifydjango.utils.timezone get_current_timezonedjango.utils.timezone make_awaredjango.utils.timezone nowdjango.utils.timezone timedeltadjango.utils.translation LANGUAGE_SESSION_KEYdjango.utils.translation activatedjango.utils.translation deactivate_alldjango.utils.translation get_languagedjango.utils.translation get_language_from_requestdjango.utils.translation gettextdjango.utils.translation gettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ngettextdjango.utils.translation overridedjango.utils.translation pgettextdjango.utils.translation pgettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ugettextdjango.utils.translation ugettext_lazydjango.utils.translation ungettextdjango.utils.translation ungettext_lazydjango.utils.version get_complete_versiondjango.views csrfdjango.views.debug get_default_exception_reporter_filterdjango.views.decorators.csrf csrf_exemptdjango.views.decorators.debug sensitive_post_parametersdjango.views.decorators.http require_GETdjango.views.decorators.http require_POSTdjango.views.generic CreateViewdjango.views.generic DeleteViewdjango.views.generic DetailViewdjango.views.generic FormViewdjango.views.generic ListViewdjango.views.generic RedirectViewdjango.views.generic TemplateViewdjango.views.generic UpdateViewdjango.views.generic Viewdjango.views.generic.base RedirectViewdjango.views.generic.base TemplateResponseMixindjango.views.generic.base TemplateViewdjango.views.generic.base Viewdjango.views.generic.detail SingleObjectMixindjango.views.generic.edit CreateViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeleteViewdjango.views.generic.edit DeletionMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormMixindjango.views.generic.edit FormViewdjango.views.generic.list ListViewdjango.views.generic.list MultipleObjectMixindjango.views.i18n JavaScriptCatalogdjango.views.static servedjango.views.static was_modified_sincedjango.contrib.auth.decorators login_requireddjango.contrib.auth get_user_modeldjango.contrib.auth.hashers make_passworddjango.core.exceptions ImproperlyConfigureddjango.core.mail.messages EmailMessagedjango.core.mail.send_maildjango.core.management.base BaseCommanddjango.db.models AutoFielddjango.db.models BooleanFielddjango.db.models CharFielddjango.db.models DateFielddjango.db.models DateTimeFielddjango.db.models FileFielddjango.db.models ForeignKeydjango.db.models GenericIPAddressFielddjango.db.models ImageFielddjango.db.models IntegerFielddjango.db.models Modeldjango.db.models PositiveIntegerFielddjango.db.models PositiveSmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models.signaldjango.db.models SlugFielddjango.db.models SmallIntegerFielddjango.db.models TextFielddjango.db OperationalErrordjango.dispatch Signaldjango.formsdjango.forms BooleanFielddjango.forms CharFielddjango.forms ChoiceFielddjango.forms DateFielddjango.forms DateTimeFielddjango.forms EmailFielddjango.forms IntegerFielddjango.forms TypedChoiceFielddjango.http Http404django.http HttpResponsedjango.http HttpResponseBadRequestdjango.http HttpResponseForbiddendjango.http HttpResponseNotModifieddjango.http HttpResponsePermanentRedirectdjango.http HttpResponseRedirectdjango.template.response SimpleTemplateResponsedjango.template.response TemplateResponsedjango.urls.pathdjango.urls reverse_lazydjango.urls.exceptions NoReverseMatchdjango.urls.exceptions Resolver404django.utils.html format_htmldjango.utils.timezone ...or view the full table of contents.

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